The Last Empire PDF Summary

The Last Empire PDFThe Final Days of the Soviet Union

When the Roman Empire was at the height of its power, it was torn apart by corruption and hypocrisy.

Perhaps, the same thing happened here, but the Soviet Leadership had no courage to acknowledge their mistakes.

We encapsulate the events that shaped the course of history!

Who Should Read “The Last Empire”? And Why?

Who would have imagined that the World War 2 winner and the once Mighty Socialist State would collapse under the slogan – freedom of speech.

The Last Empire is much more than a political overview of the dissolution of the USSR. It signifies the birth of new life and the idea of embracing individuality.

We find it suitable for all history lovers, especially those who once felt the grip of the Communist Party.

About Serhii Plokhii

Serhii Plokhii

Serhii Plokhii is an American Historian of Ukrainian origins, born on 23rd May 1957 in Nizhniy Novgorod. He specialized in the Cold War and teaches Ukrainian History at Harvard University.

He has many of his works published such as Tsars and Cossacks, The Cossacks and Religion in Early Modern Ukraine, The Gates of Europe, Chernobyl, etc.

“The Last Empire PDF Summary”

Before we take the plot as far as the end of the 90s, it was pivotal to explain the first-ever October Revolution on November 7th, 1917. The mighty Russian Empire at the time, which was mainly an agricultural country, collapsed due to the Bolshevik Coup led by Vladimir Lenin.

The communist members and admirers overthrew Nicholas II and killed his family. In the following years, the new Social State remain focused on Counter-Revolutionary activities which were administered by the “Whites” – or the aristocracy.

The fear of both “Real” and “Fictional” enemies as the essence of Soviet Ideology was deeply embedded in the minds of the ordinary citizens. The Cheka – or the first ever Soviet Secret Police, which reported directly to Lenin, received orders to show no mercy in defeating the Whites.

Most of them fled the country, never to return again, and Stalin’s spies executed others in the years before the war. The Allied invasion in Normandy and the opening of the Western Front made Hitler’s Germany see its last summer.

In April 1945, Allies agreed to meet to decide the fate of Post-War Germany. The Potsdam Conference held at Cecilienhof can be labeled as the missing link in defeating Nazism. Allies agreed that Germany should be demilitarized, denazification, decentralization, decartelization and democratization.

All captured Nazis had to face justice, in the famous Nuremberg Trials. Germany was divided into Occupation Zones, Britain, France and the U.S. took the Western Areas, and the Soviets formed the Eastern Bloc. That marked the beginning of the Cold War.

It’s said that history is written by the winners. This book tells the whole story of the Soviet Collapse, and how American Administration reacted to the downfall of the Communist Bloc. It covers the period from August 1991, until Yeltsin’s rise to power.

Mikhail Gorbachev decision to dissolve the Soviet Union came as a shock to KGB and the other members of the Politburo, who refused to take part in such actions. The iron fist of the once mighty empire had turned into a trembling hand.

The plot to overthrow the Premier of the Soviet Union was devised by his closest inner circle called the Gang of Eight. The opposers to reforms received international support by the other Communist States, while Gorbachov had the trust of the European Union and President Bush.

In the following months, violence was bruising all across the Soviet Territory. The nation was decentralized, and the other Republics received growing support in creating their internal and foreign policies.

The rising tension and the strain between the newly established Russian society and the West was another thing to be worried about. Mikhail Gorbachev opened the curtain; putting an end to 50 years of rivalry between two opposing ideologies.

According to Plokhy, this period was, in fact, the toughest for the people of all republics. A transition economy followed by modified internal policies attempted to speed up the progress of the newly formed countries. The historical era of the Soviet Union remained in the past.

Several years after the disintegration, experts reveal shocking, detailed info regarding the complex events that took place in the midsts of Soviet Crisis. Serhii Plokhii tracks records and interprets documents that stand as a proof, of how the collapse emerged and what triggered it.

In this book, you’ll receive a full psychological and ideological profile of Soviet Leaders – Yeltsin and Gorbachev in particular. The author doesn’t sidestep other big players in the arena such as U.S. President George H. W. Bush and the cunning Ukrainian President and diplomat Leonid Kravchuk.

Their roles in the Coup are not exaggerated but rather accurately described so that people will finally get the big picture of what caused the breaking up from within.

In addition, the Bush administration wasn’t too fond of Soviet Dissolution. Although they announced victory in the Cold War, many experts feared that Soviet Nuclear Arsenal would fall into the hands of hostile individuals and groups who could pose a threat to the United States.

Therefore, they advocated for centralized Power, which would eventually lead to a gradual democratization of the state.

The efforts to preserve the Soviet Union were in vain. After months of struggle, much of the countries which formed the great Socialist State – voted for independence. The Russian Federation emerged from the ashes, ready to turn a new leaf in history.

Key Lessons from “The Last Empire”

1.      The new beginning of history
2.      Is democracy the only way?
3.      An ambiguous anecdote

The new beginning of history

According to European leaders, Putin is a modern dictator who doesn’t face any real opposition during elections. Some argue that these allegations are made only to destabilize the Russian Society.

Anyway, we can’t say for certain who is right or wrong, but it’s evident that Russian Economy is definitely showing signs of progression and expansion.

Is democracy the only way?

Aristotle also questioned democracy as a way of governing a country. Perhaps, some cultures are not equally adjustable to such way of life.

In our opinion, democracy is a way to impose foreign influence into a sovereign country. A state that has been proved on numerous occasions. The strong threatens the weak all in the hopes of peace and prosperity.

An ambiguous anecdote

It’s terrible when the wolf and the sheep decide what’s for lunch. In other words, if we campaign for such ideology, the social difference gap will continue to grow.

It’s best if we embrace some basic moral principles to improve the well-being of all people.

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Our Critical Review

When writing about events which share an emotional and ideological value to the reader, you must remain impartial.

We followed the same logic while writing this amazing summary. We really hope you like it and learn something from it.    Take this summary with you and read anywhere! Download PDF:   

The guide to how to read books online in a legal way

Free Online Books to ReadRomance, action, suspense … Or do you like subjects related to motivation, business or meditation? No matter what your preferences are. The online book options are getting bigger and the virtual shelves offer only the best in the publishing market.

The truth is that reading books online is getting easier every day. In addition to the variety of titles available, you can rely not only on specific reading devices such as Kindle but also tablets, smartphones, and computers.

Reading books online can be a great choice

Online books offer several advantages. One of them is the ease of transportation. You can “load” multiple units at once, large or small, bulky or not. They don’t add extra weight in your purse or backpack.

Reading books online doesn’t weigh in your pocket too because they are cheaper than the printed ones. And there are lots of options, totally free.

Other Advantages of Digital Books:

  1. You can read books online at night or in places with little or no lighting. It is only recommended to control the brightness of your device’s screen to protect the eyes from irritation.
  2. You can also control the size and type of the letters of the books online. That is, customize your device in the way that best suits you, depending on the location and time that you’re reading.
  3. You can put the reading device in the position you want and use your fingers just to turn the pages. Great for those who like to read when they are in bed or during meals, for example.
  4. Online books are programmed to start over where you left off. Easy and practical.
  5. Do you love reading books online and a new one was just released? The good news is you do not have to wait. It immediately enters the virtual shelf and, after the purchase (or “rent”), you can already delight in the novelty.
  6. Books to read online do not take up space in your home. So you can keep a very rich and huge library, even if you live in a small apartment.
  7. Do you know those highlights in yellow and the notes you usually make in printed books? This is also allowed in the digital versions.
  8. Online books don’t spoil. Do not tear and do not get dirty after much use.

How to find Free Online Books to Read?

There are online book platforms with extensive library and books. In some of them, you must download the book, and in others, access is instantaneous.

In addition to the platform, you must have the device. Among online reading enthusiasts worldwide, the number of those using the smartphone grows. But you get a Kindle (the Amazon Digital Book Reader), a tablet or even a computer.

3 Online Book Platforms You Should Know to Find Books to Read Online

Kindle Cloud Reader

Kindle Cloud Reader is an online book platform compatible with Google Chrome, Mozilla Firefox, Safari and Internet Explorer.

Kindle Cloud Reader lets you access the Kindle bookstore instantly, using only the web browser – online or offline – with no download or installation required.

There are over 950,000 book titles online to read right away. And you do not necessarily need a Kindle e-reader to access this library. Just use a computer, tablet or smartphone.

The Kindle Cloud Reader has several other features, including:

  • Ease searching for new publications and thus you can start reading as soon as you leave the publication.
  • Your current book is automatically available for offline use and you can read it anytime.
  • Software updates are also automatic.
  • You can customize the page layout, the desired font size, text color, background color etc.
  • Access to all notes and bookmarks you make in other Kindle applications.
  • You can search for words definitions and other information about the book and author, for example.

To use the Kindle Could Reader, you must go to and log in to your Amazon account, or create one, if you don’t have already. You make a monthly subscription and have access to everything in the digital collection.


Scribd is also a great choice for reading books online, although it is not an exclusive eBook platform.

The Scribd share documents in general, such as research, academic papers, Web pages, slides, photos etc. And books come into this list.

The Scrib platform supports several formats – Word, PDF, PPT, RTF, XLS, among others. It has a connection to Twitter, Facebook, WordPress etc, and this expands the visibility of the documents.

Scribd was nicknamed “Netflix of Books,” because it is a platform for rent, not for sale. The CEO of the company, the American Trip Adler, in an interview for Exame magazine, said: “the reader should worry about what to read and not what to buy”.

This means that you don’t get to keep the books that you read online in Scribd in your library because you pay for the reading, not for the book.

To access Scribd, you sign a monthly fee that frees the library with more than 100,000 titles. In this case, you can also read on your tablet, smartphone, or computer.

If compared to the library of the rival Amazon, for sale of books online, Scribd rent options are smaller. But it is still an attractive platform, especially in terms of price.


The platform 12Min targets people who seek knowledge, but do not have much free time. Offers well-crafted summaries – also called microbooks – about career, business, and personal development.

The 12 Minutos’ microbooks are a way to absorb tons of information at the speed that the world demands today. That is, quickly. And you can still choose audio or text.

12Min assumes that no one needs to read 30 pages to find out whether or not they liked the text. The platform extracts the key concepts from each book and creates a new, authentic content that takes the reader directly to what interests him.

Books to Read Online

It’s not just a summary. It is a conceptual piece that brings out the best of every great work you have not yet read. This is how we define the services offered.

“We want to change the world with each microbook and make accessible the complex concepts that before it was needed 200 pages to be explained”. Now, you only need 12 minutes to read a microbook.

Simple texts and easy assimilation. You can access your microbook on the bus or subway, in the interval of classes or work, in the queue of the bank, whenever and wherever you want, in a short time.

You may be wondering: is 12 Minutos competing with books? Of course not! The idea is to promote the understanding of the key concepts of the book so that the reader can arouse interest in the complete work.

It is worth checking the post where the founder Diego Gomes talks about how the 12′ can improve people’s lives.

3 strong reasons for you to access the 12Minutes:

  • You can access books online anywhere, even if your time is short. This can be through reading (microbooks) or audio (audio books);
  • Rapid reading allows you to “walk” through various authors in a short space of time, accelerating your learning, developing new skills and increasing your competitiveness;
  • Keeps you up to date on the job market, the ideas that stand out and the current trends.

The access to 12Min is by annual subscription. But the platform offers a free microbook per week and three days of unlimited, totally free, trial access.

Read free online books

You can read books online for free, in an ethical and legal way. This is because, as mentioned in the text above, the platforms offer, in its catalog, a series of totally free options.

Often the book is out for free. In other cases, access to the platform (and the entire catalog) is free and unlimited for a certain period.

When we talk about free online books, we are not referring to the poor quality thing. On the opposed! There are many excellent items. It pays to be aware of these opportunities.

Start now

So if you enjoy reading books and want to acquire new knowledge, try all the perks and benefits of the digital versions.

How about starting right now! We, from 12 Min, have 3 great book tips and they are among our microbooks. check out:

The Secrets of the Millionaire Mind – T. Harv Eker

Why do some people accumulate wealth easily and others live with the red flag on? The key is to understand our mental model, how it is shaped, what its limitations are and how to work to develop them.

How to make friends and influence people – Dale Carnegie

A spectacular and compelling work to develop relationship skills doesn’t matter if they are personal or professional. Dale Carnegie’s advice, methods, and ideas have already benefited millions of people and remain completely current. For many entrepreneurs, reading and understanding how to make friends and influence people is worth more than an MBA.

Mindset – Carol Dweck

Success does not come solely from our abilities or talents, but also from the way we face life. For the author, our success depends on two mental attitudes: fixed and progressive. Progressive attitude can make us happier people, able to control our own lives, achieving success.

Good reading!    Take this summary with you and read anywhere! Download PDF:   

The Evolution of Cooperation PDF Summary

The Evolution of Cooperation PDFThe Way to Successful Leadership

It can be said with some confidence that developing into a self-motivated and compassionate leader requires mental resilience.

Not all individuals can cope with the burden that derives from such responsible decision-making.

In this book summary, we try to use the Prisoner’s Dilemma matrix to encapsulate the author’s main findings.

Who Should Read “The Evolution of Cooperation”? And Why?

People are social creatures, and as such we are compelled to get together with other individuals who share the same moral values. Getting to know the other, is, in fact, understanding yourself.

Cooperation is neither modern nor stylish term. It originates from the ancient gatherings of the Stone Age, where groups tried to improve their chances of survival by collectivizing their efforts.

A movement with one accord is proving to be harder than we imagined.

The Evolution of Cooperation” gives some thoughts on this problematic, and that’s why it’s perfect for managers and leaders in the making.

About Robert Axelrod

Robert AxelrodRobert Marshall Axelrod is a renowned American political scientist born on May 27, 1943. Currently, he is a professor at the University of Michigan and the author of several books.

In 1964, Axelrod obtained his B.A. in mathematics from the University of Chicago, and five years later he received his Ph.D. from Yale University.

“The Evolution of Cooperation PDF Summary”

Truly, we couldn’t help but notice that cooperation emerges in various forms, depending on the environmental factors.

Robert loves to use real-live vivid examples to give a brief explanation on how collaboration or alliance can change.

Have you ever been heartbroken because the partner didn’t appreciate your efforts? Do you have a hard time when it comes to aligning personal agenda with company’s objectives? Is it worth it to show compassion and kindness to those who are not willing to repay the favor?

The discrimination of others may be among the most important of abilities because it allows one to handle interactions with many individuals without having to treat them all the same, thus making possible the rewarding of cooperation from one individual and the punishing of defection from another

What advice would you give to other people? Or if you want to take the matter even further – How should a country react to Blitzkrieg – a hostile invasion without a declaration of war?

To drive this point home further, it’s best if you learn the ropes of Prisoner’s Dilemma matrix. It’s a simple 2 row and 2 column visual graphic that forms four equal adjoining boxes.

Evidently, each of these boxes represents a different case or scenario that illustrate an outcome inherent in such circumstances:

  • Box 1: Cooperation column and cooperation row – The first box manifests the highest form of cooperation, and in doing so – each player receives 3 points for its efforts.
  • Box 2: Defection column and cooperation row – The second box entirely differs from the first one on the ground that unity is not always the best solution. The column player decides to abandon the coalition, but the row participants strive for cooperation. In doing so, the row player receives zero points, and then defecting column player win the game by accumulating 5 points.
  • Box 3: Cooperation column and defection row – This box, in fact, represent the inversive process of the previous box. The column player now is pressing for cooperation and the row player chooses to seize the momentum and defect.
    The winner is the row player with 5 points, and the column player goes home empty-handed.
  • Box 4: Defection column and defection row – In the last case scenario where both players decide to defect and go on their own, each of the participants receives P – which stands for punishment. They both get one point.

As the process exhibits, the game awards the players based on their decision during the show. However, the worst part is that the participants can manipulate the system.

For instance, if the game is played once, both players will logically choose defection to accrue the benefits of one-time play.

If the play is extended to several rounds, the decision-making becomes more rational. If the participants settle upon the idea of embracing cooperation, they will maximize their points!

So, the ground to make split second-decisions shifts due to the intensity and continuance of the game. Taking advantage of cooperative strategy breaks the chains of ego-centric approach.

This logic indicates that both of the players would want to amplify the beneficial side of the deal until the game reaches its end.

Investors know that every penny that is not included in the endless cash flow process loses its value. The same logic goes for Prisoner’s Dilemma because participants prefer immediate payoffs over future ones. Nonetheless, the value of the reward is not calculated in such manner.

By taking all these elements into account, a person might be thrown off balance. So, what’s the best strategy an iterated Prisoner’s Dilemma of infinite time?

To get the big picture, researchers organized a contest and invited renowned figures from all spheres of influence including psychology, math, sociology, to give their contribution to the project.

All of them were obligated to propose computer programs that can overshadow the other one. Out of 14 candidates, Tit for Tat was announced the winner. A professor from the University of Toronto – Anatol Rapoport was the inventor of the program.

Tit for Tat is a simple, and technologically advanced program that functions in a highly unique fashion. It starts with cooperation, as the main move that symbolizes a good fighting spirit.

Next up, the program emulates the movements of other computer applications, making it literally impossible to outsmart it.

What accounts for TIT FOR TAT’s robust success is its combination of being nice, retaliatory, forgiving, and clear.

The 20th century will always remain in history as the bloodiest era of human progress. Let’s jump into World War I and examine the activity at the Western Front where troops from both sides used this cooperative push to gain some momentum.

Staying in trenches for months and fighting the opposing side fiercely for few inches of the territory was their daily routine. What came as a surprise that German or Allied soldiers would walk right into the enemy’s shooting range, but the soldiers would ceasefire.

A new world – driven by the endless fire of cooperation and mutual understanding.

Key Lessons from “The Evolution of Cooperation”

1.      The horrors and miracles of World War I
2.      Tit for Tat came out on top
3.      Anticipate the flow of the game

The horrors and miracles of World War I

Even in war times, the cooperation emerged in a spontaneous manner. Along the entire Western, Front soldiers refused to take part in massive killings and strived for reconciliation.

This serves as a proof that cooperation is a powerful strategy that is widely underestimated.

Tit for Tat came out on top

As it turns out, Tit for Tat won the game by a mile – and earned 504 points in a 200 move tournament. It would be ignorant to criticize other programs because pretty much all of them proved its effectiveness onto the battlefield.

Anticipate the flow of the game

The inability to judge the course of the contest makes the participant more aversive towards cooperation and more eager to embrace defection.

In general, everyone would agree that indefinite time-frame is a down-to-earth scenario.

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“The Evolution of Cooperation Quotes”

Based upon the tournament results and the formal propositions, four simple suggestions are offered for individual choice: do not be envious of the other player’s success; do not be the first to defect; reciprocate both cooperation and… Click To Tweet Reciprocity is certainly not a good basis for a morality of aspiration. Yet it is more than just the morality of egoism. Click To Tweet It is not an exaggeration to say that reciprocity is a way of life in the Senate. Click To Tweet If the other player is not likely to be seen again, defecting right away is better than being nice. Click To Tweet For cooperation to prove stable, the future must have a sufficiently large shadow. Click To Tweet

Our Critical Review

Even though this book was firstly published in 1984, it’s preserved its glow and status over the years. As an evergreen topic, no one can take away its worth.

We had the honors of indulging in such amazing reading-time and advise you to do the same.    Take this summary with you and read anywhere! Download PDF:   

Why Good People Turn Bad Online PDF Summary

Why Good People Turn Bad Online PDFMeet the scientists finding out how we can defeat our inner trolls and build more cooperative digital societies.

Sometimes, scientists are real heroes in disguise. We don’t pay too much attention to the progress these individuals have in store for us.

In a world where social justice is taking a massive blow, we need every bit of help to control these violent tendencies.

In this book summary, we try to outline the main revelations that compile this book.

Who Should Read “Why Good People Turn Bad Online”? And Why?

Let’s dive right into finding what prompts “The Average Joe” to become a “Mad Joe.” In other words, it’s vital to ascertain the causes that lead to violent tendencies and add to the overall online abuses.

“Why Good People Turn Bad Online” is an excellent addition for every person who participates in online forums, discussions, and chats.

Take notes!

About Gaia Vince

Gaia VinceGaia Vince is British freelance author, journalist, and broadcaster. As the author of Adventures in the Anthropocene – she was awarded the Royal Society Prize for Science Books.

“Why Good People Turn Bad Online PDF Summary”

For many years, researchers and analysts have conducted reality testing to observe how people tend to behave in a given situation. For the same purpose, they marked “public good games” as the primary tool for making that happen.

Testing people’s urge for cooperation led the researchers into believing that games should receive a higher role in the execution of this strategy. It’s true that people are social creatures who prefer to operate in groups for the sake of the community.

Nevertheless, certain surroundings have an inclination to obstruct the process by instigating a new “every person for himself/herself” kind of behavior.

One may assume that geographical boundaries in the only world serve as a guarantee that users won’t face any judgment based on their digital behavior.

In the meantime, Search Engines such as Google, Bing, Yahoo, accentuate content that leads to higher engagement, regardless of the channel through which such strategy is put in place.

We arrive at a conclusion, that emotional outbursts are well-received in the online era, especially when you have a group of spectators screaming from the side and shouting your name. In other words, it stimulates people to accuse others of their wrongdoings or promoting misleading information.

These studies further testify that the internet is slowly migrating towards a troll-full online.

Indeed, minority groups and women in general, need to go up against these groups of online bullies, who love to engage in discussions and humiliate others. For the same purpose, specific audiences prefer to stay by the side and eschew violence, including tense debates.

Experts agree that this contributes to lesser diversity and lowers the value of the disputation. Public goods games are critical for ascertaining these selfish tendencies and behavior that lean towards hatred.

For the argument’s sake – individuals who originate from places where the corrosive effects of corruption are omnipresent gravitate towards lesser moral decision-making.

These individuals rarely embrace integrity; a conclusion which reveals how people swing from one side to the other. Moreover, persons who experienced this selfishness first hand during the game, are inclined to behave in pretty much the same way in the following challenges.

From such standpoint, it’s merely logical to say that it boils down to how people behave during the game. Creating strong bonds with those who are pro-social and avoiding individuals who prefer ego-centric approach.

Game developers devised several plans to punish some players who step outside the lines of decent gaming behavior. Researchers endorse this strategy because it’s the only way of creating a better online community.

To reduce racist provocations and hate speech, a Twitter bot reminds those individuals who act in a certain way that violent behavior hurts people. In doing so, it reduces racial intolerance and promotes harmony.

The real question is – What do if someone is abusing others this very moment?

Take screenshots, report it to the local police and block that user from further engaging with that community. If the situation is spiraling out of control, inform your friends and family to give you support.

Key Lessons from “Why Good People Turn Bad Online”

1.      Take actions and don’t hesitate
2.      Don’t turn out bad
3.      Join an abuse-free environment

Take actions and don’t hesitate

Researchers took this matter one step further by designing an algorithm that can gauge the level of harassment by a given user.

With such concrete actions, the magic of trolling is taking a decline in terms of intensity.  

Don’t turn out bad

If you ever feel like some inner forces are pulling you over to the other side, just stop for a moment and take a breather.

Direct your efforts towards relieving the plight of those suffering from similar abuses. Don’t add fuel to the fire by being ignorant.

Join an abuse-free environment

You don’t have to become an activist to make a difference. Try to find common grounds with those who are drawn toward violence and hatred.

Don’t judge too quickly, try to help these people!

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“Why Good People Turn Bad Online Quotes”

And people believe that they are spreading good by expressing outrage – that it comes from a place of morality and righteousness. Click To Tweet What we’ve created online is an ecosystem that selects for the most outrageous content, paired with a platform where it’s easier than ever before to express outrage. Click To Tweet

Our Critical Review

Well, whether we hate to admit it or not, we all had our moments on the internet.

Such quarrels are frequent, and abuses happen on a global scale. Putting a strain on them can really help the world to become a better and more tolerant place.    Take this summary with you and read anywhere! Download PDF:   

Lolita PDF Summary

Lolita PDFSometimes we tend to judge too quickly. Not listening to the whole story, stands to reason why we mustn’t form an opinion about something.

Through this very odd, but highly entertaining novel, you’ll learn the new meaning of the term – emotional pain.

Stay with us.

Who Should Read “Lolita”? And Why?

Indeed, Lolita may cause disturbance and judgment among more conservative communities. The plot is controversial, and it requires a dose of openness to digest its message.

That being said, we advise you to read this amazing novel if you have the guts to cope with the alarming reality of life.

Vladimir Nabokov Biography

Vladimir NabokovVladimir Nabokov was a great novelist of Russian-American origins. He achieved international recognition after deciding to dedicate himself to writing American prose.

His work has been widely criticized, but regardless of critical remarks, his efforts will be etched into the hearts of future generations.


The storyline of this fictional novel is really something special. It is looked through the prism of Ray; Lolita is something similar to a confession. It all starts when a lawyer sends a manuscript named Lolita (Confession of a White Widowed Male) to Ray.

The author is somehow disguised and used a pseudonym to remain mysterious and hidden from unwanted attention. Eventually, Humbert Humbert (the writer) died upon trial in his jail cell.

Despite all the hypocrisy and wrongdoings, Ray shows admiration and support for H.H. He believes that the author’s ideas and narration are unique and special. Moreover, he adds that the novel can change the lives of everyone suffering from psychological diseases and help parents with the upbringing.

Ray loves the manuscript, in which the author recalls some amazing childish moments and his first love Annabel. Sadly, Humbert never got the chance to experience this love because of Annabel’s premature death. It stills haunts Humbert and reminds him of how cruel life can be.

Humbert’s life takes an unexpected turn because of his decision to work various jobs in a mental institution instead of pursuing a career as an English teacher.

I am sufficiently proud of my knowing something to be modest about my not knowing all.

In the meantime, he gets married to an older woman, but the whole marriage thing doesn’t end too well. He is sexually obsessed with young women that remind him of Annabel.

After a while, Humbert arrives on the shores of the United States. He rents a room in a nearby area called New England Town from an older widow – Charlotte Haze. She has a twelve-year-old daughter Dolores (Lolita), and her innocent young appearance put Humbert under a spell.

Humbert tries to conceal his pedophiliac intentions, but occasionally he follows Lolita and finds reasons to flirt with her. Charlotte Haze, on the other hand, falls in love with this mysterious man.

Humbert goes too far and even agrees to marry Charlotte to have his true love closer to him. For all intents and purposes, he remains a closed book. Humbert’s obsession reaches a whole new level when he even thinks about killing Charlotte to have Lolita all to himself.

Nonetheless, he disregards this idea and turns to a more realistic solution. Charlotte finds his diary and stands up to him! Humbert denies everything written there, but she refuses to listen.

He tries to explain, but Charlotte abandons the argument and leaves the house. Not long afterward, a car hits her, and she dies!

Humbert now believes the time is right to take concrete actions. He goes to the summer camp to find Lolita and tell her the news. She hides Charlotte’s death for a while and shares the story after they arrive at the motel.

For over a year they’ve been roaming around the country, in which time Humbert grows his love and obsession for Lolita. In his diary, he points out that Dolores was the one who tried to seduce him not the other way around.

We all have such fateful objects — it may be a recurrent landscape in one case, a number in another — carefully chosen by the gods to attract events of specific significance for us: here shall John always stumble; there shall Jane’s heart always break.

On their voyage, they got the attention of a man who grows suspicious of their endeavor. At one point, Humbert even threatens Lolita to put her in an orphanage if she doesn’t submit to him.

Humbert manages to find a job at Beardsley College and settle in the Northeast area. Lolita enrolls in a local school, and the physical effects and cravings of puberty start to roll in. Humbert becomes increasingly aware of Lolita’s adolescent energies and enforces some strict rules to keep her away from teenage boys.

Despite all these restrictions, Humbert gives the go-ahead for her to appear in a school play. Her seductive behavior makes him even angrier.

Humbert decides to take drastic measures, and they embark on a road trip. Humbert accuses her of being unfaithful and even suspects that she arranged for someone to follow them.

Lolita’s illness on the road prompts Humbert to take her to a local hospital. When he returns to pick her up, he discovers that Dolores isn’t there.

The nurses tell him that someone else came, probably her uncle. Humbert loses his temper and starts yelling and screaming. He regains composure for a moment and leaves the hospital.

For more than two years Humbert embroils in an endless search of Lolita. He plans his revenge and makes up his mind to kill the person who did it.

Finally, Humbert finds Lolita pregnant at the age of seventeen, but the man who took her away from the hospital is not her husband. He is not quite sure what to do, so he decides to contemplate his next big move.  

After some “interrogation” Lolita has no choice but to reveal the name of the person who kidnapped her – Clare Quilty. He was omnipresent throughout the whole plot, working in the shadows and forging out a plan. Lolita had a deep affection for Quilty, but he abandoned her when she refused to take part in child pornography.

Lolita Epilogue

Humbert gets very angry at Clare and decides to keep track of the whereabouts of this teenager. Lolita receives $4,000 from Humbert, and that’s the last time they lay eyes on each other. Quilty is not aware that Humbert is already hot on his trail.

Humbert enters his house, fires multiple shots and evens the score.

The police take Humbert into custody, and eventually, he ends up in prison. According to his wishes, the memoir is published after Lolita’s death and sent to John Ray, Jr., Ph.D.

Like this summary? We’d Like to invite you to download our free 12 min app, for more amazing summaries and audiobooks.

“Lolita PDF Quotes”

It was love at first sight, at last sight, at ever and ever sight. Click To Tweet Don't cry, I'm sorry to have deceived you so much, but that's how life is. Click To Tweet I knew I had fallen in love with Lolita forever; but I also knew she would not be forever Lolita. Click To Tweet And presently I was driving through the drizzle of the dying day, with the windshield wipers in full action but unable to cope with my tears. Click To Tweet And she was mine; she was mine, the key was in my fist, my fist was in my pocket, she was mine. Click To Tweet

Our Critical Review

We don’t belong to the subset of critics who are not too pleased with Vladimir’s expression and ideas. Lolita is an illuminating masterpiece that penetrates deep into the decision-making of people.

We have nothing else to say, other than – It’s truly worth the effort.    Take this summary with you and read anywhere! Download PDF:   

All About Kindle: What you need to know before buying one (+ hacks)

KindleCan you imagine carrying a suitcase full of books when you travel? We don’t think so. So, we want you to know everything about Kindle so you are more practical at these times.

As much as physical books have not completely disappeared, reading has become much more practical after the emergence of e-readers. Amazon’s Kindle is still the best known of all. Launched in 2007, the device has become indispensable for avid readers. With several versions available in the market, it can be a bit difficult to choose without first making some research.

For this matter, we make it easy for you and we prepare this complete guide with everything you need to know before you buy a Kindle!

Why side with Kindle?

In the era of tablet popularization, having an e-reader seems unnecessary. In fact, everything depends on your needs and goal. Tablets are functional for various actions, including for readings, but the Kindle ends up taking advantages over in other characteristics.

  • For those who enjoy spending hours reading, the battery of the Kindle is much longer. It can last for more than a month. You will not have problems, for example, in that longer flight you need to stop reading because the battery of the device died;
  • Everything on the Kindle is fit for reading, from the size and weight to one of the main features: the internal light;
  • Screen illumination. The illumination and colors of an e-reader are made for reading and are usually kinder to the eyes, avoiding the eye fatigue in longer uses. If you want to read in the open and very bright with a tablet is almost impossible.

You’ll find many other functions of the Kindle. See the tips of this video:

Now that you’ve discovered a little more of what is a Kindle, we want to present the models that are available in the market.

What is the best Kindle? Know the Kindle models

Amazon now offers 4 different Kindle models. At this time we want you to know everything about Kindle, knowing each one of them is essential. The reading power, durability, and functions differ slightly from one another.

Prices range from $ 299.00 to $ 1,149.00 and in addition to being available on Amazon’s website, the Kindle can be purchased at other major stores such as Ponto Frio and Walmart.

Screen size, storage capacity, and Wifi access are features present in all four models. Some other features change and we want to highlight them below.

Kindle – R$299

Amazon’s simpler model is no disappointing. Among the main characteristics, we’ve highlighted:

  • The device does not have a screen illumination, looking like real paper;
  • The battery of this model is one of the most durable;
  • The screen is touch sensitive;
  • It weighs only 161g.

Kindle Paperwhite R$ 479

Paperwhite hacks:

  • Paperwhite has a unique function free 3G;
  • It’s the heaviest model, with 217g in the 3G version;
  • The internal light has 4 LEDs;
  • The device has dimensions of 169 x 117 x 9.1 mm;
  • It has the differential that is the resolution of 300 ppi, against 167 of the New Kindle.

Kindle modelsKindle Voyage R$899

The Voyage version also comes with exclusive features:

  • It has more LEDs than Paperwhite – there are 6 light sources;
  • It is equipped with automatic lighting, which changes according to the environment;
  • To flip pages, it has the technology PagePress – just press the edge of the device to change.

Novo Kindle Oasis – R$1.149

The most expensive model of the four, the Kindle Oasis also has the most powerful battery plus other features:

  • The internal illumination is performed by 10 LED;
  • Has buttons to make it easier to change pages;
  • Its weight is 20% lower than the Voyage, with 131g;

Now that you’ve heard everything about Kindle, you need to consider, beyond the price range, what your needs really are. Don’t have access to WiFi networks often and will need the 3G connectivity function? Buy a Paperwhite. Want the lightest model possible? Choose Oasis.

For anyone you choose, be sure to buy a cover to protect your purchase. Only the Kindle Oasis already comes with one, but it is possible to purchase Kindle covers from the Amazon store.

Increase battery life

With a Kindle, you won’t need to keep the device plugged in or recharging constantly. As we mentioned before, the battery life of the device can be up to one month, depending on your reading frequency.

If you, for example, read 30 minutes a day, with the brightness at level 10 – for those devices with a bright screen – and with the internet turned off, the duration can reach 8 weeks.

Background lighting is not available on your Kindle. Newer versions of the other models have brought the lighting at the top of the screen, instead of being behind, which further avoids eye fatigue.

Supported formats and how to convert files

When you buy an e-book from the Amazon store, it already comes perfectly formatted for the Kindle. Within the site itself, you can send directly to the Kindle, without the need to connect the USB cable.

For those who already have books in other formats and want to view them in the e-reader, Kindle supports files of type .mobi, .prc, .txt, and .tpz. If your texts are in .epub or .pdf format, for example, you need to convert them.

The best program currently to do this is Caliber. In addition to the conversions, it is an e-book manager that works with almost all formats and for all available e-readers.

The program even offers a cloud library that you can access from anywhere, plus the ability to download articles from the web and turn them into an e-book.

Other ways to transfer files

In addition to buying Kindle eBooks in the Amazon store and transfer them with Caliber, you can download the texts to your Kindle with the USB cable or directly from the Amazon library.

But something that not everyone knows is that when your registration on Amazon is created an email from your Kindle. You can send files to this email and they are added to the library automatically. To find out which one is yours, click here.

The email also allows download from other platforms. 12Minutos has a library of microbooks that can also be read from your Kindle.

Free Library and Kindle Unlimited

Amazon still offers an affiliate club, Kindle Unlimited, where you pay only $ 20 a month and have access to a variety of titles, including free ones. In addition to this club, the site already has a free e-book collection for you to start putting together your Kindle library.

If you haven’t already checked out the free Amazon store listing, take a look there and you’re sure to find some amazing works. Works such as The Crowdfunding Bible by Scott Steinberg and How to Work for Yourself by Brian Cohen, all these can be read without paying anything.

There you also find works on the best-selling list at very low prices. For example The Daily Entrepreneur, S. J. Scott, for only R$ 1.99 and Master Focus, I. C. Robledo, for R$ 5.99.

Bonuses: Kindle hacks

Comics and manga

One of the advantages of Kindle is being able to view image files, such as manga and comics. Who is a fan should know that the Kindle is almost the same size of physical issues and its color also favors the artwork?

You can still optimize the experience with a program called Mangle. It formats the manga and comic files, in which you have to name each image to organize on the Kindle.

Custom screen saver

To customize your screen saver, you will have to unlock your Kindle. Some websites offer instructions for this, such as EbookBR. After doing this, you can select the screen saver you want. If you want to choose one, we suggest the Kindle Blog Wallpaper.

Kindle easter eggs

Do you think you’ve found out everything about Kindle? This tip just a few knows.

If you are reading a very dense book and need to relax a bit, the Kindle has some hidden games. In the main screen, press ALT+SHIFT+M and after opening the first game press G to load the other.

Read articles from the internet on Kindle, there are lots of amazing Kindle books

Caliber offers this option, as we talked about before, but the Kindle itself also has a function to read articles from the internet.

Go to Menu -> Experimental -> Web browser and place the link to the article you want to upload.

Reading will probably be better than reading on your phone, with images disrupting page loading.

All About Kindle

So, what did you think about everything you just learned about Kindle? Do you know how to buy Kindle? Any questions? Leave your comment!

And now, how about checking out a guide on how to find good books to read?    Take this summary with you and read anywhere! Download PDF:   

The Barefoot Executive PDF Summary

The Barefoot Executive PDFThe Ultimate Manual for Being Your Own Boss & Achieving Financial Freedom

Don’t you want to be able to just once go to work in your pajamas?

What about if that is your life?

Carrie Wilkerson teaches you how you can become “The Barefoot Executive.”

(Which, having founded a company by the same name, she quite literally is.)

Who Should Read “The Barefoot Executive”? And Why?

Do you like your job?

Can you imagine yourself doing it for the next decade or half a century?

If so, then – congratulations!

You’re one of the fortunate few people on this planet who’ve managed to become their own executives!

Because we just can’t imagine someone who’s not his own boss – and who, consequently, has to adhere to schedules, deadlines, inflexible work hours, etc. – content enough to not yearn for a different future.

Carrie Wilkerson’s “The Barefoot Executive” is a book about these yearners, the less fortunate ones.

Those who want to do something other than what they’re currently doing.

So, basically, it’s about you.

Carrie WilkersonAbout Carrie Wilkerson

Carrie Wilkerson is a bestselling author, consultant, and sought-after keynote speaker.

Named by “Forbes” a top small business influencer, Wilkerson has been featured on both Fox Business News and CNN and has consulted many Fortune 500 companies, including Google.

“The Barefoot Executive” is her only book so far.

Find out more at

“The Barefoot Executive PDF Summary”

Even though it shares the title, this book has nothing to do with the 1971 live-action Disney movie starring the young Kurt Russell and a very smart TV-loving chimp.

However, it may have everything to do with the brightness of your future and your wellbeing, since Carrie Wilkerson’s goal – as stated in the Introduction is

…to give you hope and to take you through the process of investigating your options and your skill sets to create the financial freedom and work life that you’ve perhaps only dreamed of until now.

Ignore the naysayers and avoid the status quo.

So, in other words, Carrie’s vision of your future is one in which you can go to work without socks – or even pants – and one in which you can have the flexibility to join your daughter on an all-day field trip whenever you like – without asking for permissions and without any consequences.

And she shares this vision in five main parts.

The first part is titled “The Myth Breakers,” and it consists of two chapters: “Job Security, Tenure, Retirement, and Other Fairy Tales” and “Why You Must Own a Business.”

As evidenced by the tiles themselves, these chapters set the tone for Carrie Wilkerson’s main investigation, i.e., the why before the how of becoming your own executive.

Needless to add, as far as Wilkerson is concerned, you’re living in some century past if you still believe that securing a 9-to-5 job for the long run is the only way you can live your life, or that you can retire inspired and live happily ever after on your social security pension only!

It’s never been easier than today to start your own business, so you’re missing the opportunity of your life if you don’t at least try that!

But how should you start?

Well, by not making one of “The Three Big Mistakes” which is how the second chapter of Wilkerson’s book is titled.

The mistakes are chasing someone else’s dream, chasing too many rabbits, and chasing dollars.

Wilkerson’s point here is that you shouldn’t try to be the next anyone because that way you risk detaching your own business from your real desires and dreams, ultimately falling down the same rabbit hole you were trying to climb up from.

In other words: if you don’t work the job you want, create the one you’ve always dreamed about!

Not the one which books say will most probably work, or the one which self-help authors claim will get you the most money.

As Simon Sinek so convincingly argued a while back, there’s only one place from which you should start building your company: its why.

Part three, “The Methods,” is where Wilkerson moves from the why to the how, or, in other words, from motivation to action.

Here she explains what the right mindset of success is and how personalizing a business means taking massive action.

However, actually masterminding it will probably mean doing at least one of two things: finding a good mentor and doing serious research.

After all, even the greatest of sportsmen can’t maximize their talents without a proper mentor – so, don’t act self-important and do find one.

The fourth part of the book – titled “The Models” – covers (quite fittingly) six different business models from which you can choose to develop your business practically from scratch.

The models discussed here are service based (i.e., the one based on using your skill set), expertise-based (coaching and consulting), knowledge-based (information marketing), goods-based (commerce or direct sales), and referral-based (commission or affiliate marketing).

The sixth model is not actually a business model in itself but a combination of the other, since, once you have at least one model firmly planted, nothing’s stopping you from progressing to multiple streams of income.

The fifth and final part of the book, “The Marketplace” is all about positioning and finding your right audience.

It tries to answer questions such as “who wants what you have?” “where will they find you?” and “where will you find them?” while also sharing some ideas to income and discussing how you can effectively build your audience.

Scattered throughout Wilkerson’s book, you’ll find many practical advises and case studies – “Barefoot Action Steps” and “Barefoot Case Studies” – in addition to numerous links to supplemental videos which should further help you understand Wilkerson’s message.

Which, ultimately, is really simple but extraordinarily powerful: if you don’t like your life, you can easily fix it.

Just remodel yourself:

Key Lessons from “The Barefoot Executive”

1.      Shatter the Myths of the Past Century – and Become Your Own Boss
2.      The Three Big Mistakes You Should Never Make
3.      The Five Business Models You Should Research

Shatter the Myths of the Past Century – and Become Your Own Boss

There are many unsubstantiated and/or obsolete myths which, unfortunately, have decided your life for you.

Some of the most frightening ones are the Myth of Job Security, the Myth of Tenure, and the Myth of Retirement.

These are all remnants of a past world which has nothing to do with the dynamic you-can-do-it-yourself age in which we’re currently living.

So, forget about them.

Start your own business and write some new myths for the new generations.

The Three Big Mistakes You Should Never Make

There are three big mistakes you should never make if (or, rather, when) planning to start your own business.

The first one should be an obvious one – but people do it much too often so that we can ignore it: chasing other people’s dreams. The point is to build your life around your very own.

The second one is chasing too many rabbits – because that way you probably won’t catch a single one.

Chasing dollars is the third one.

Money should always be just means to an end, not the end itself.

The Five Business Models You Should Research

Probably the most important part of “The Barefoot Executive” is the fourth one: “The Models.”

Here you’ll find five different business models you should research and the ways you can employ them and link them to your very own business.

These are service-based, expertise-based, knowledge-based, goods-based, and referral-based.

Finally, the sixth model is a combination of these, i.e., multiple streams of revenue.

Like this summary? We’d like to invite you to download our free 12 min app, for more amazing summaries and audiobooks.

“The Barefoot Executive Quotes”

Why do you want to start a business? Why are you reading this book? Click To Tweet

The ‘why’ behind the money, the ‘why’ behind how you are changing people, the ‘why’ behind what you do is what you are really focused on. Click To Tweet

You are never going to work really hard just to have a lot of money. Click To Tweet

What motivates us is what the money can do or the cause it can support or the choices that money allows us to have. Click To Tweet

Take action, absolutely – but also keep learning and growing. Don’t ever be finished. Click To Tweet

Our Critical Review

If you want to find a one-for-all working formula on how to start a business and become a filthy rich person, “The Barefoot Executive” is not the book for you.

However, it can do you one better: it offers a comprehensive overview of the possibilities ahead of you while sharing with you all the motivation and inspiration you’ll ever need to finally get the courage to start of your own business.

Funny and stimulating, “The Barefoot Executive” is certainly one of the places where you should start pursuing your dream career.    Take this summary with you and read anywhere! Download PDF:   

We Were Eight Years in Power PDF Summary

We Were Eight Years in Power PDFAn American Tragedy

Barack Obama was an American president from 2008 to 2016.

And Ta-Nehisi Coates chronicles the period in his remarkable collection of essays “We Were Eight Years in Power.”

Who Should Read “We Were Eight Years in Power”? And Why?

If you are interested in learning how deeply white supremacy and racism are rooted in American history, you should read this book.

Read it even more carefully if you are not: you should be.

Ta-Nehisi CoatesAbout Ta-Nehisi Coates

Ta-Nehisi Coates is an American essayist, journalist, and comic book writer.

A national correspondent for “The Atlantic,” he has also worked for “The Village Voice” and “Time” and contributed to numerous publications.

He has written three more books: “Asphalt Sketches,” “The Beautiful Struggle,” and “Between the World and Me.”

“We Were Eight Years in Power PDF Summary”

“We Were Eight Years in Power” is a collection of Ta-Nehisi Coates’ essays published during Barack Obama’s presidency in “The Atlantic” magazine.

There’s one essay for every year from 2008 to 2016 (framed between an Introduction and an Epilogue and interspersed with personal notes), and you can read each of them online.

We’ve even provided all the links!


First Year: ‘This Is How We Lost to the White Man’

Following the numerous sexual assault allegations and his recent conviction on three counts, Bill Cosby is certainly not someone whose words anybody would take at face value today.

However, this wasn’t the case back in 2004 when he was still one of the most popular and beloved black figures in the world.

In May 2004, during an NAACP ceremony in Washington D. C., the comedian gave a speech – infamously dubbed “the Pound Cake speech” – in which he was highly critical of the black community in the United States, attacking black Americans for – among other things – giving their children African names.

Twelve years later, in 2016, he reiterated this, even claiming that racism is no excuse for black Americans to fail and end up in prison.

Needless to say, Cosby is missing the point altogether, mixing reasons with consequences, and, unfortunately, giving white racists something to talk about.

Second Year: American Girl

After Barack Obama came to power, Ta-Nehisi Coates got an assignment to do a profile on the new president’s wife, Michelle.

From the interview with her, he learned that hers is the conventional narrative.

Namely, she lived in an all but cocooned childhood, during which she was never very aware of her blackness; after all, she grew up on the South Side of Chicago, where being black was very normal.

However, this all changed when Michelle went to Princeton, where she majored in sociology and minored in African-American studies, but where, more importantly, she first realized that the society all but naturally expected from her to assume a somewhat different identity and distance herself from her blackness.

Now, that, unfortunately, is an all too familiar experience for every African-American living in the U.S.

Third Year: Why Do So Few Blacks Study the Civil War?

For black people, white supremacy is deeply rooted within American history – a history in which their role is completely ignored.

For example, the Civil War is taught in glorying terms at American schools, even though it is nothing more but evidence that America’s economic prosperity rested for a century on the bare shoulders of black slaves.

And that

Civil War is a story for white people—acted out by white people, on white people’s terms—in which blacks feature strictly as stock characters and props. We are invited to listen, but never to truly join the narrative, for to speak as the slave would, to say that we are as happy for the Civil War as most Americans are for the Revolutionary War, is to rupture the narrative.

In other words, say what you will, but for the black people, the Civil War cannot be “a horrible tragedy” of failed negotiations between the North and the South.

It can only be someone else’s history.

Fourth Year: The Legacy of Malcolm X

Malcolm X is a controversial, difficult-to-pin-down figure in American history, deemed a criminal by some, a martyr by others.

Either way, from the point of view of an African American, he is certainly one of the greatest and most influential people who have ever lived.

In fact, according to Coates, he is responsible for shaping the consciousness of black Americans more than anyone else.

Before he started asking questions such as “who taught you to hate the color of your skin?” and “who taught you to hate your own kind?” phrases such as “black is beautiful” were unimaginable.

Unsurprisingly, Malcolm X influenced the views of Barack Obama himself, with whom he also shares some aspects of his biography.

Fifth Year: Fear of a Black President

Before Barack Obama, “black president” was all but an oxymoron.

In fact, as Coates reminds us, “the comedian Dave Chappelle joked that the first black president would need a ‘Vice President Santiago’ —because the only thing that would ensure his life in the White House was a Hispanic president-in-waiting.”

Fortunately, the United States did elect a black president – twice.

Unfortunately, this instilled some new energy in white supremacist movements which didn’t miss an opportunity to blame Obama for being racist toward white people on the few occasions – the fewest in history, in fact – when he addressed the issue of injustice (such as the shooting of Trayvon Martin).

Ultimately, this resulted in bringing Donald Trump to the White House.

Sixth Year: The Case for Reparations

This essay is probably Ta-Nehisi Coates’ most famous one.

It argues for reparations for the African-Americans as a way to repay them for the racial atrocities they had to endure during the past.

We don’t need to list them to understand that Coates’ proposition isn’t outlandish as it may seem at first.

We just need to tell you this: white American wealth is founded on black slavery.

And the blacks have seen nothing of it for centuries, two in three of them being deemed ineligible even for social security as late as the Great Depression.

Seventh Year: The Black Family in the Age of Mass Incarceration

As we’ve told you before, there’s a New Jim Crow in town, and it is called mass incarceration.

Simply put, there are more prisoners in the United States than in any country in the world – and most of them are blacks.

For example, one in ten black males between the ages of 20 and 40 were imprisoned back in 2002, when only one in one hundred white males was incarcerated.

Needless to add, that’s statistically impossible.

And it needs to be mended right away.

Eighth Year: My President Was Black

Ta-Nehisi Coates is a member of a proud generation of African Americans who are able to say that, for eight years, their president was black.

However, they must also be aware of the fact that they the United States is still not a post-racial country.

Being a child of a Kenyan man and a white American woman, Barack Obama was able to bridge the differences between the races by exuding an unwavering sense of optimism for the future.

However, the very fact that he was succeeded by Donald Trump may be a somewhat ominous sign.

Key Lessons from “We Were Eight Years in Power”

1.      The Fear of the Good Negro Government
2.      Barack Obama Was a Bridge – and Yet…
3.      White Supremacy Was Reborn – Out of Black Presidency

The Fear of the Good Negro Government

If there was one thing that South Carolina feared more than bad Negro government,” wrote Du Bois once, “it was good Negro government.


Because while good negroes are great in “the unthreatening abstract” (think “The Cosby Show,” for example), in reality, they question the entire American history and the very foundations of the United States.

Barack Obama Was a Bridge – and Yet…

A son of a Kenyan man and an American woman raised in a white family, on paper, Barack Obama was the perfect bridge capable of linking all races.

And yet – when he left office, half of the opposition country (including U.S.’s current president) didn’t even believe he was an American.

That’s not a good sign.

White Supremacy Was Reborn – Out of Black Presidency

Even if Barack Obama’s presidency was merely symbolic, it was used as a tool for infusing white supremacy and racist views with new energy.

And, unfortunately, that’s how Trump came to power.

Like this summary? We’d like to invite you to download our free 12 min app, for more amazing summaries and audiobooks.

“We Were Eight Years in Power Quotes”

Racism is not merely a simplistic hatred. It is, more often, broad sympathy toward some and broader skepticism toward others. Click To Tweet

Every Trump voter is certainly not a white supremacist, just as every white person in the Jim Crow South was not a white supremacist. But every Trump voter felt it was acceptable to hand the fate of the country over to one. Click To Tweet

I don’t ever want to forget that resistance must be its own reward, since resistance, at least within the lifespan of the resistors, almost always fails. Click To Tweet

I had not been prepared for the simple charm of watching someone you love grow. Click To Tweet

The warlords of history are still kicking our heads in, and no one, not our fathers, not our Gods, is coming to save us. Click To Tweet

Our Critical Review

“We Were Eight Years in Power” is – to quote one review – brilliant, relevant and powerful.

After all, it wasn’t one of Time’s top 10 non-fiction books of 2017 without a strong reason!    Take this summary with you and read anywhere! Download PDF:   

Reset PDF Summary – Ellen Pao

Reset PDFMy Fight for Inclusion and Lasting Change

If you’re living in the States, you’ve probably heard many things about the Pao v. Kleiner Perkins 2015 case.

Here’s your chance to hear it from the horse’s mouth:

“Reset” is the work of none other but Ellen Pao herself.

Who Should Read “Reset”? And Why?

If you are a woman and you feel that you have experienced some form of sexual harassment at work – read this book right away.

It has inspired many to come out with their stories; it should inspire you as well.

And the future of whole humanity depends on that fact.

We’re not exaggerating.

Ellen PaoAbout Ellen Pao

Ellen Pao is an American investor and activist, the co-founder of the diversity consulting organization Project Interlude.

After her gender discrimination suit against Kleiner Perkins made her a celebrity and earned her a reputation as a champion for women rights, she has focused her efforts on making the problems women face at work more widely known.

“Reset,” a book chronicling her battle against Kleiner Perkins, is part of this campaign.

“Reset PDF Summary”

Discrimination is a thing of the past, right?

Well, that’s exactly what Ellen Pao, the middle child of three daughters born to Chinese immigrants in New Jersey, believed as well.

After all, she had the fortune of being born in the Land of the Free, the one country in the world in which vertical mobility is firmly rooted in the reality of people’s day-to-day activities, the nation which prides itself in being the leader of the democratic world.

So, when Ellen Pao graduated from Harvard Law School in 1994, she believed that her sought-after future is there for the taking.

Nothing could stop her.

However, her outlook changed the minute she got a job as a corporate lawyer at the renowned New York City law firm Cravath, Swaine & Moore.

The first thing Ellen Pao noticed was not a good thing: sexual discrimination.

So deeply embedded in the workplace that even those suffering from it weren’t able to notice it.

For example, one of her colleagues – an African-American female – was constantly mistaken for a paralegal or an administrative assistant, despite the fact that she was dressed like neither.

Even worse: the culture of the firm was so obviously a male-dominated one that one time, the head of the department organized a visit to a strip club!

Naturally, the only people who were allowed to come were her male coworkers – resulting in her and her female colleagues missing out on the opportunity to get to know their boss on a more personal level.

Now, is that fair?

If you think not – then, brace yourself: it gets even worse from here.

After finishing her two-year MBA at Harvard Business School, Pao started working as chief of staff at the well-known venture capital firm, Kleiner Perkins Caufield & Byers.

The result?

Some more discrimination.

For example, on a business trip to New York, Pao – the only woman there – had to endure her colleagues talking about the hotness of a potential future member of the company’s board (Marissa Mayer), because, obviously, that’s an important quality to have if you want to succeed.

Then, the conversation moved even more doggedly in that direction, as the men started bragging about meeting the famous porn star Jenna Jameson, finally culminating in a night out for which Pao didn’t receive an invitation.

Once again, she was left out.

Her only fault?

Being a woman.

But that’s not the end.

The “boys club” philosophy of Kleiner resulted in the company even ignoring some of her advises, like, for example, her pitch for Twitter in the early days of the company when she even arranged a meeting with the company’s then-CEO, Jack Dorsey.

However, after a male junior partner had made the same pitch four years later, Kleiner agreed to invest, hailing the male partner as a genius and completely disregarding Pao’s offer, made when Twitter’s value was lower by 400 percent!

Things escalated when Ellen Pao started seeing her coworker Ajit Nazre.

She believed Nazre had separated from his wife when she began dating him, but once she found out he was lying, Pao terminated their relationship.

This did not go well with Nazre, who started intentionally misleading Pao, excluding her not only from important meetings but also from as important email threads.

Pao complained of Nazre’s misconduct to her managing partner, Ray Lane, but Lane wasn’t interested in listening to her since he was much closer to Nazre due to the “boys club” philosophy which allowed for Ray and Ajit to bond over the many male-only events and dinners they had attended together.

When Nazre was promoted, Pao’s circumstances worsened even further, since he now started writing negative reviews about her!

Ellen filed numerous complaints, but this only resulted in Kleiner’s HR consultant telling her to stop complaining.

The situation became so unbearable that Pao was thinking of leaving the company – even though she liked the job.

However, while confiding to Trae Vassallo, a fellow junior partner – also a female – Pao learned that she wasn’t the only one with the same problem.

Namely, Ajir Nazre had sexually harassed Trae Vassallo as well, tricking her into going with him on a fake business trip during which he tried to force himself upon her.

Now, the women got a serious case against Nazre, and this led to him finally leaving the firm.

The battle was won.

The war had just begun.

Its supposed culmination: Pao v. Kleiner Perkins, a landmark trial which became a cause célèbre after it got the attention of the media.

The final verdict arrived on March 27, 2015.

And according to it, Ellen Pao lost the case.

However, as it turned out, it was merely a slight hitch on the road to equality.

Because Pao’s case inspired many women around the world with similar experience to start sharing their stories.

The #IWasRapedToo hashtag, the Chia Hong v. Facebook and Tina Huang v Twitter trials, Katie Moussouris suit against Microsoft – these are all part of Ellen Pao’s legacy.

In fact, reporters started calling the sudden surge of women complaining against gender discrimination, quite appropriately, the Pao Effect.

Key Lessons from “Reset”

1.      Gender Discrimination Is a Real Thing
2.      Ellen Pao’s Role in Gamergate
3.      Project Interlude

Gender Discrimination Is a Real Thing

We can discuss the reasons as much as you want to, but it’s an undeniable fact that men earn more and women earn less.

And, as Ellen Pao found out working for few exceptionally powerful and influential American firms, this is merely the beginning.

Because women also have many fewer opportunities to change the disparity for the very simple reason that companies tend a “boys club” culture, which includes all-male events, strip clubs, and female-objectifying discussions.

In a nutshell – if you want to succeed as a woman – you better become a man.

Ellen Pao’s Role in Gamergate

In 2014, journalist Eron Gjoni published “thezoepost” in which he detailed his relationship with Zoë Quinn, an American video game developer and programmer.

The content of the post resulted in Zoe being the constant victim of doxing, in addition to receiving numerous rape and death threats.

One of the platforms on which this was happening was Reddit, of which Ellen Pao was a CEO at the moment.

Appalled by the incident, In 2015, Ellen Pao “banned revenge porn and unsolicited nudes” on Reddit, resulting in many similar websites (including Facebook) embracing the zero-tolerance policy.

Project Interlude

After losing the case against Kleiner, Ellen Pao felt that it would be wrong to let all the support she had during the time go to waste.

So she gathered other women in executive positions, and, together with Erica Joy Baker (former Google engineer), Tracy Chou (former Pinterest engineer) and Brianna Wu (diversity advocate), she co-founded Project Interlude.

Its goal: giving CEOs useful advice on diversifying.

Its status: an award-winning non-profit organization.

Fully in line with the motto of “Reset,” this wonderful Toni Morrison’s quote:

If you are free, you need to free somebody else. If you have some power, then your job is to empower somebody else.

So, go Pao!

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“Reset Quotes”

If you get an opportunity that someone offers you, take it. Click To Tweet

There are so many times that being a woman of color counts against you. If it ever gives you an advantage, don't feel guilty about it. Click To Tweet

There was some awareness back then about hidden gender bias, particularly because of research like the famous ‘Howard and Heidi’ study. Click To Tweet

If you are free, you need to free somebody else. If you have some power, then your job is to empower somebody else. (Via Toni Morrison) Click To Tweet

More than ever, I believe that most people are ready to face the issue of diversity in tech. Click To Tweet

Our Critical Review

Shortlisted for the 2017 “Financial Times” and “McKinsey” Business Book of the Year Award, “Reset” is the best – even though at times, a bit too subjective – account you’ll find out there of the Pao v. Kleiner Perkins case which effectively blew open a conversation about the status of women.

Relatable (yes, even if you are a man) and brave, “Reset” serves as both a lesson in awareness and a rallying cry for equality.    Take this summary with you and read anywhere! Download PDF:   

Leading Professionals PDF Summary

Leading Professionals PDFPower, Politics, and Prima Donnas

Power and politics are not like fire and water – they are like flames and charcoal. If you get into the water, you’ll get wet.

What we are trying to say is – many people fail to recognize the signs which indicate a foreseeable reality.

Leaders’ job is to anticipate everything and instruct others on how to steer the wheel.

Who Should Read “Leading Professionals”? And Why?

Leading Professionals is an applicable book that is written for the sake of newcomers and those eager to expand their knowledge in the realm of leadership. In other words, it’s perfect for individuals who are willing to dig up the mysteries of proper management.

We sincerely urge you to join Laura’s cause and abide by her paradoxical principles which may take your abilities to the next level. Pay attention and heed the warnings!

About Laura Empson

Laura EmpsonLaura Empson is an author, the Director of the Centre for Professional Service Firm and a senior researcher at Harvard Law School.

She spent more than 2 decades conducting various researches and case studies on professionalism and leadership.

“Leading Professionals PDF Summary”

Leading professionals ought to provide directions for other decision-makers, lawyers, managers, consultants but that isn’t a straightforward process.

Perhaps, avoiding the word – difficult would be the best because such claim can be misconstrued by those who divide matters into two categories: complicated and easy.

Having authority is one thing, knowing when and how to apply it, is an entirely enigmatic momentum. Why? – Because, professionals within an organization tend to possess distinctive features, which can jeopardize the communication in all layers.

In a democratic society, where opinions differ, enacting strict rules which control the behavior of those involved in the process is virtually impossible. Consensus as a tool starts to kick in; this organizational instrument sparks ideas and prompts people to commit themselves to the task, and come to an agreement with others if that’s necessary.

Without such outlooks and horizons, you can’t be regarded as a professional. It’s critical to be open-minded and willing to put the company’s interests above the personal gain. In efforts to align personal and professional goals, people lose their sense of self, so you don’t need to force any rapid conclusion.

According to Laura Empson, professional institutions or companies have to deal with two evidently energetic professionals:

  • Extensive autonomy – Professionals who would do anything to be in charge of their own operations and have an aversion towards monitoring and supervision.
  • Contingent authority – These group of professionals doesn’t mind having support from other leaders and rely on their partners.

Influencing and the ability to ask for better terms is becoming an integral part of the art of “Making Deals.” Leaders who can’t cope with pressure; can’t be labeled as goal-oriented professionals. In hopes of designing the perfect system that stimulates consensus, companies often change their internal policies.  

The standard procedures existing in every professional firm, give rise to a phenomenon named – plural leadership. As the name implies, it refers to a tricky situation that signifies how partnership develops into a new form of a joint command.

To put it briefly, this new form of authority takes the initiative to confront conventional and hierarchical decision-making and places emphasis on professional change.

Acting with such audacity takes more than just courage. The professional firms must be backed by all executives and those willing to invest in helping the management to solve complex organizational issues. All things said, leaders fly in the faces of 10 paradoxes:

  1. Autonomy and control” – It’s no secret that professionals love and appreciate autonomy. Nonetheless, those higher in the chain of command must at least supervise their activities, and finding the right balance is key. These professionals must be given a choice to willing accept a certain level of control for better organizational execution.
  2. Reluctance and ambition” – If you intend to lead and guide other members of the organization, you must not become one of those overly-ambitious leaders.
  3. Political and apolitical leadership” – Often times, professional organizations have political elements in their decision-making. Leaders need to possess specific skills, such as be able to talk smoothly and maintain influential craftiness to subside a storm within the ranks.
  4. Individual and collective interests” – In general, professionals in any company must protect their authority, but on the other side, they should take into account the interests of their partners. Nurturing these connections is vital for maintaining the stability of the organization.
  5. Harmony and conflict” – If your employees are deprived of a harmonious environment – productivity and efficiency will suffer. To avoid quarrels and growing tensions, leaders need to put themselves in the shoes of others to understand their perspective.
    Putting those tense feelings aside can give the organization the upper hand to withstand the competitiveness of the market.
  6. Insecurity and confidence” – Nobody likes insecure individuals! As a leader, you are obligated to help your co-workers and associates to build up that self-esteem and rise to the occasion.
  7. Commercial and professional priorities” – In some companies, a group of professionals may be in charge of large operations. These senior managers are inclined to agree that commercial profits are vital for maintaining the functionality of the company.
  8. Centralized power and distributed leadership” – There’s more than just physical evolution because a professional firm can also evolve in all matters. Power can swing from one executive to the other; departments may receive higher autonomy, and so forth. Leadership also can be distributed to various executives who showcased their readiness to carry out the operations.  
  9. Active and passive leadership” – Indeed, many great leaders act as observers. Their expertise and years of experience grant them the privilege of being spectators, who take drastic measures only in a given situation. Sometimes doing nothing, is in fact, doing everything. This is a great paradox that only a small group of leaders can digest. The proactive form is typical for the majority of managers, but that’s not the only practical approach.
  10. Ambiguity and clarity” – In theory, leaders are duty-bound to aid their base of disciples/followers/members/partners in times of trouble. This is especially true for matters that extend far beyond their level of competence. Ambiguous behavior is one of the most baffling paradox, and leaders in any professional firm must outline a plan to deal with such audacity.

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“Leading Professionals Quotes”

Senior professionals may choose to delegate authority to their elected leaders but reserve the right to undermine or remove them. Click To Tweet The assumption is that professionals who understand their clients’ business will be well qualified to lead their own. This inference is…no more than a good guess. Click To Tweet Political behavior among professionals… is not inherently wrong; it is an organizational fact of life. Click To Tweet Strong relationships between individual professionals and their clients are essential to the successful sale and delivery of professional services. Click To Tweet In a professional organization, the so-called greater good is simply the interests of the collective as defined by its leaders at a particular point in time. Click To Tweet

Our Critical Review

We rarely say this, but it seems like leadership in years to come will gradually transform from proactive into passive shape.

Genuine behavior inspired by the right and accurate information will serve as a tool for making that happen. This book is undoubtedly ahead of its time, and probably we will witness these changes in the foreseeable future.    Take this summary with you and read anywhere! Download PDF: