I’ll Be Gone in the Dark PDF Summary

I'll Be Gone in the Dark PDF Summary

One Woman’s Obsessive Search for the Golden State Killer

I’ll Be Gone in the Dark is the story of the Golden State Killer and one woman’s obsession to identify him.

And it’s fascinating from cover to cover.

And even beyond that.

Who Should Read “I’ll Be Gone in the Dark”? And Why?

Do you like CSI shows or books related to true crimes?

Well, let’s just say that we have no doubt that I’ll Be Gone in the Dark will probably be one of your favorites.

But, don’t trust our word for it: be sure to read it as soon as possible

Michelle McNamara Biography

Michelle McNamara

Michelle McNamara was an American crime blogger and freelance writer.

After graduating from the University of Notre Dame and earning an MFA in creative writing from the University of Minnesota, McNamara launched her website, True Crime Diary, where she shared with the world her fascination with serial murderers, especially the Golden State Killer.

I’ll Be Gone in the Dark was supposed to be her debut book; unfortunately, it ended up being her only book: McNamara died in her bed on April 21, 2016, just a week after her 46th birthday.

“I’ll Be Gone in the Dark PDF Summary”

I’ll Be Gone in the Dark is one of the most chilling books you’ll read this year – or any other year, for that matter.

In it, Michelle McNamara goes on a personal quest to identify the Golden State Killer, a guy you know by that name precisely because of her efforts. (Before this book was published, McNamara penned quite a few related articles for the Los Angeles Magazine, in which she coined the name.)

I’ll Be Gone in the Dark chronicles not only the three separate crime sprees of the Golden State Killer (Part 1) but also McNamara’s efforts to find out as much as she can about him (Part 2).

McNamara died before being able to finish the book and discover the identity of the Golden State Killer; however, that’s not where the book ends.

And this is not only because Michelle’s lead researcher, Paul Haynes, and investigative journalist Billy Jensen prepared I’ll Be Gone in the Dark for its release by compiling the rest of McNamara’s notes and adding a third part to the book.

Read ahead to find out what we mean.

Part One: The Murderer with Three Names

The Original Night Stalker (October 1979 – May 1986)

The book begins with an exploration of the deaths of Patrice Harrington (on August 19, 1980) and Manuela Witthuhn (on February 6, 1981) – both in Orange County.

Criminalist Jim White (of the Orange County Sheriff’s Department) notices strange similarities between the murders.

Both Patrice and Manuela were about the same age (27-28) and recently married; in the case of Patrice, her three years younger husband, Keith Eli Harrington, was also with her, murdered as well; Manuela’s was hospitalized, and she had been alone on the night of the murder.

Both Patrice and Manuela were bound, raped, and bludgeoned to death; most conspicuously, in both cases, the killer had stolen a small and trivial object of personal value to the victims and taken the murder weapon with him.

In time, Mary Hong and Larry Pool – the former a criminologist, the latter a sex-crimes detective – join Jim White and the three discover DNA evidence linking the three murders.

Soon, the investigation discovers three other cases that may be related.

On October 1, 1979, an intruder tried to murder a Goleta couple; fortunately, the attempt failed after the wife’s scream alarmed a neighbor, an FBI agent. The couple provided a description: a 5’9” man in his thirties with blonde hair.

Two days before the start of 1980, Dr. Robert Offerman, a 44-year-old osteopathic surgeon, and his wife, Alexandria Manning, 35 years old, were killed in a manner very similar to Patrice and Manuela: tied and shot dead.

And on March 13, 1980, another couple, Charlene and Lyman Smith, were bludgeoned to death after being bound with drapery cord; Charlene had been raped before.

Years after the connection between the murders was made, the murderer stroke again, killing a troubled teenager by the name of Janelle Lisa Cruz on May 4, 1986.

The East Area Rapist (June 1976 – July 1979)

At the time, nobody knew that the murderer of Patrice and Manuela – known to the local area residents as the Night Stalker, but after Richard Ramirez’s murders renamed the Original Night Stalker – had a previous criminal history.

Or, better yet, many knew, but they used a different name to tell that story.

Namely, between 1976 and 1979, a guy dubbed the East Area Rapist terrorized Sacramento, with over 50 attacks during that period.

He started in 1976 by stalking middle-class neighborhoods late at night and trying to discover alone women in one-story homes, usually near open spaces which would provide him a quick escape.

In time, however, the East Area Rapist changed his preference for couples, breaking in their houses through windows or sliding doors and waking them up with a flashlight while threatening them with a handgun.

The rest of the modus operandi was, more or less, the same as the one practiced by the Original Night Stalker.

First, he would ask the wife to tie her husband, after which he would tie the woman himself.

Afterward, he would separate the two, dragging the woman to an adjacent room where he would rape her repeatedly and unhurriedly.

In fact, the Rapist often spent hours in the home, drinking beer and eating food in the kitchen or ransacking drawers and closets for some personal items of little value.

After some time, the East Area Rapist would leave the house, his victims uncertain whether he has due to his leisurely and silent presence before.

Even though the Rapist always wore a mask – usually a ski mask – many identify him as a young man with a round face, wide eyes and a broad mouth.

The Visalia Ransacker (April 1974 – December 1975)

But that’s a description and an MO already familiar to some officers from Visalia P.D., as detective Richard Shelby – who is assigned with the case of the Eastern Area Rapist – learns from his colleagues.

Namely, between April 1974 and December 1975, a baby-faced man burglarized over 120 homes and committed at least one murder in Visalia, California.

The strange thing: he ignored almost everything valuable, stealing only coins and personal items of low value.

Richard Shelby and his partner, Carol Daly, are almost sure that Visalia was the training ground for the East Area Rapist of Sacramento.

They still don’t know that Sacramento was the training ground for the murder spree of the Original Night Stalker in Santa Barbara and Orange County.

The Connection

In 1997, Paul Holes, a criminologist from Contra Costa County, creates a profile of the Original Night Stalker.

Three years later, Larry Pool of the Orange County Sheriff’s Department, notices similarities between some of the murders and the rapes.

The next year, Holes and Mary Hong realize that the DNA of the Contra Costa County attacks matches the one of the Original Night Stalker.

In April 2001, the police informed the media of the connection, and on April 5, 2001, an article is published in the Sacramento Bee magazine confirming what many had been suspecting for the past few years.

Namely, that the East Area Rapist and the Original Night Stalker are one and the same person.

Just one day later, a victim of the East Are Rapist receives an eerie phone call.

“Remember when we played?”

That’s everything she hears before the caller hangs up.  

Part Two: McNamara’s Journey

A decade later, McNamara, a crime blogger obsessed with serial killers, starts investigating the murders.

She collects theories related to the identity of the man referred to as the East Area Rapist-Original Night Stalker (or EAR-ONS, for short).

Soon, she starts publishing articles in the Los Angeles Magazine, dubbing the EAR-ONS the Golden State Killer.

During her investigation, she meets with the Kid and the Social Worker, pseudonyms of two people who are part of an internet group devoted to discovering the identity of the Golden State Killer.

McNamara also meets with Richard Shelby, Larry Pool, and Paul Holes who tell her everything she needs to know about the Golden State Killer, as well as about the different tactics the police use to eliminate suspects and close in to the murderer.

Paul Holes even takes Michelle on a tour of a few murder sites, pointing out to her possible places of entry and escape the Golden State Killer might have used.

Using this knowledge, McNamara theorizes that the killer might have been originally from Goleta and that he might have had a military background.

In addition, she hypothesizes that he might have lived in Sacramento and gone to the California State University there, since, as she notes, his murders seem as if to follow an “academic schedule.”

Part Three: The Ending that Wasn’t Written

On April 21, 2016, Michelle McNamara died in her bed in her family’s home in Los Angeles, California. Her death was attributed to the mixing of multiple drugs.

She was only 46 at the time of her death.

She never got to finish her book.

That’s why Paul Haynes – aka the Kid from the book – and Billy Jensen, an investigative journalist, decided to write the third part of the book.

In it, they describe the full extent of McNamara’s obsession and her investigative work, analyzing her geographic profiling maps, theories about the identity of the killer, and many other of the 3,500 documents in Michelle’s hard drive.

(Her obsession with the Golden State Killer and her desire to find him is once again highlighted by Patton Oswalt, Michelle’s husband, in the afterward of the book.)

The third part of I’ll Be Gone in the Dark ends with an e-mail Michelle had sent to her editor in the final month of 2013, stating her optimism about new developments in the case and her wish to turn her readers into detectives.

“If the challenge here, or perceived weakness,” she writes, “is that the unsolved aspect will leave readers unfulfilled, why not turn that on its head and use it as a strength? I have literally hundreds of pages of analyses from both back in the day, and more recently—geo-profiles, analysis of footwear, days of the week he attacked, etc. One idea I had was to include some of those in the book, to offer the reader the chance to play detective.”

Haynes and Jensen swear to not stop the investigation until getting the Killer’s name.

The Epilogue

I’ll Be Gone in the Dark ends with a strange Epilogue subtitled “Letter to an Old Man,” in which McNamara addresses the Golden State Killer.

“One day soon, she ends it, “you’ll hear a car pull up to your curb, an engine cut out. You’ll hear footsteps coming up your front walk.”

“Like they did for Edward Wayne Edwards, twenty-nine years after he killed Timothy Hack and Kelly Drew, in Sullivan, Wisconsin. Like they did for Kenneth Lee Hicks, thirty years after he killed Lori Billingsley, in Aloha, Oregon.”

McNamara ends her letter to the Golden State Killer with a few sentences which will undoubtedly give you goosebumps:

Walk into the light.

The doorbell rings.
No side gates are left open. You’re long past leaping over a fence. Take one of your hyper, gulping breaths. Clench your teeth. Inch timidly toward the insistent bell.
This is how it ends for you.
‘You’ll be silent forever, and I’ll be gone in the dark,’ you threatened a victim once.
Open the door. Show us your face.
Walk into the light.

I’ll Be Gone in the Dark Epilogue

You may wonder why we chose to summarize the epilogue above and not in the section titled “Epilogue.”

Well, that’s because this book has an epilogue in reality.

Published on February 27, 2018, McNamara’s book reignited interest in the Golden State Killer. Just two months later, HBO bought the rights for it and announced the development of a documentary series.

The filming began on April 24, 2018, two years after the accidental suicide of McNamara, almost to the day.

That very same night, at a promotional event in Illinois, Patton Oswalt, Michelle’s husband, told the audience that he believes the Golden State Killer will soon be caught.

“He’s running out of time,” he concluded.

The very next morning, the Sacramento Police announced the arrest of the 72-year-old Joseph James DeAngelo, a former police officer in Auburn and Exeter, California.

James’ DNA matched the one of the Golden State Killer.

He was not just a suspect.

He was the murderer.

“You did it, Michelle,” Oswalt told his Instagram followers soon after. “Even though the cops are never going to say it, but your book helped get this thing closed.”

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“I’ll Be Gone in the Dark Quotes”

That’s what we do. All of us. We make well-intentioned promises of protection we can’t always keep. I’ll look out for you. Click To Tweet He loses his power when we know his face. Click To Tweet I love reading true crime, but I’ve always been aware of the fact that, as a reader, I am actively choosing to be a consumer of someone else’s tragedy. Click To Tweet He's the fake shark in Jaws, barely seen so doubly feared. Click To Tweet What is the lasting damage when you believe the warm spot you were just sleeping in will be your grave? Click To Tweet

Our Critical Review

I’ll Be Gone in the Dark was deemed the best book of the last year by so many magazines and authors that there’s, really, no reason to list them here.

“What readers need to know—what makes this book so special—is that it deals with two obsessions, one light and one dark,” wrote Stephen King. “The Golden State Killer is the dark half; Michelle McNamara’s is the light half. It’s a journey into two minds, one sick and disordered, the other intelligent and determined. I loved this book.”

King also described the book as a “brilliant genre-buster,” a feeling shared by just about anyone.

Including us: this book is unputdownable and brilliant.

We can’t recommend it enough.

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What the Dog Saw PDF Summary

What the Dog Saw PDF Summary

And Other Adventures

You’d think that we’ve summarized all of Gladwell’s books, right?

Well, there’s still one left:

What the Dog Saw.

Who Should Read “What the Dog Saw”? And Why?

If you read Gladwell’s New Yorker column regularly, then you shouldn’t read What the Dog Saw: the book is a collection of his best (and best-known) essays, so the chances are you’ve already read it.

However, if you don’t have a New Yorker subscription, then buy this book; it’s Gladwell, so you’ll never regret that decision – even if you subscribe to the New Yorker in the future.

Some of the essays in this book deserve to be read more than once.

About Malcolm Gladwell

Malcolm Gladwell

Malcolm Gladwell is a bestselling Canadian author and long-time staff writer for The New Yorker.

He has written five books, and all of them made it to #1 at The New York Times bestseller list: The Tipping Point, Blink, Outliers, What the Dog Saw, and David and Goliath.

Gladwell is also the host of the popular podcast Revisionist History.

Read more about him here.   

“What the Dog Saw PDF Summary”

 “Nothing frustrates me more than someone who reads something of mine or anyone else’s and says, angrily, ‘I don’t buy it,’” writes Malcolm Gladwell in the “Preface” of What the Dog Saw.

“Why are they angry?” he goes on:

Good writing does not succeed or fail on the strength of its ability to persuade. Not the kind of writing that you’ll find in this book, anyway. It succeeds or fails on the strength of its ability to engage you, to make you think, to give you a glimpse into someone else’s head — even if in the end you conclude that someone else’s head is not a place you’d really like to be.

What the Dog Saw is a collection of 19 articles – all previously published on the pages of The New York Times – in which Gladwell tries to show the world through the eyes of the others, be the others alcoholics (as in the second article of the second part) or dogs (as in the last article of the first part – the one which gives the book its title).

The best part?

By his own admission, out of the countless articles he has written while working for The New Yorker (which is ever since 1996), these 19 are his favorites.

The even better part?

All of them are available on the site of The New Yorker.

And we’ve provided the links!

That way, if you’d like to, you can read this book in its entirety today.

Part 1: Obsessives, Pioneers, and Other Varieties of Minor Genius

The first section of the book includes six essays and is, in the words of Gladwell “about obsessives and what I like to call minor geniuses — not Einstein and Winston Churchill and Nelson Mandela and the other towering architects of the world in which we live, but people like Ron Popeil… and Shirley Polykoff.”

The Pitchman: Ron Popeil and the Conquest of the American Kitchen

First published in 2000, The Pitchman won Malcolm Gladwell the 2001 National Magazine award. It discusses Ron Popeil, an exceptional direct response marketer and the inventor of things such as Showtime Rotisserie and the Veg-o-Matic.

But, wait, there’s more!

No, there’s not. That’s just another thing Popeil has invented.

Yup, we’re talking about the phrase.

(Read the full article here)

The Ketchup Conundrum: Mustard Now Comes in Dozens of Different Varieties – Why Has Ketchup Stayed the Same?

Back in the 1970s, a guy named Howard Moskowitz did a detailed study of the different types of spaghetti sauce on the market and realized something groundbreaking.

Namely, that there isn’t a perfect spaghetti sauce, nor either one of them is better than the others. Simply put, perfection has a plural nature, and intermarket variability became a thing.

And that works for many things – except for ketchup. Many entrepreneurs – the story of Jim Wigon is told here – have tried displacing Heinz’s regular tomato ketchup from the top, but not one of them has succeeded.


Moskowitz shrugs: “I guess ketchup is ketchup.”

(Read the full article here)

Blowing Up: How Nassim Taleb Turned the Inevitability of Disaster into an Investment Strategy

Nassim Nicholas Taleb needs no introduction – especially not from the guys who’ve introduced him quite a few times and summarized all of his books.

If you’ve read at least some of them, you already know everything you need to know about this essay, which is more than worth the read, because it reveals the roots of Taleb’s Socratic and crucial discovery: we’ll know more once we admit that we don’t know all the things we say we do.

How times change, though!

Just a year after What the Dog Saw was published, Taleb stopped being a minor genius and grew to become one of the celebrated cited thinkers of our time and age.

Some would say even a lot bigger than the guy who profiles him here.

(Read the full article here)

True Colors: Hair Dye and The Hidden History of Postwar America

True Colors tells the story of two exceptional female copywriters of the 1960s: Shirley Polykoff and Ilon Specht.

The first one, irresistibly vain and flamboyantly brilliant, worked for “Clairol” and came up with the branding slogan “Does she… or doesn’t she?” and the tagline “Hair color so natural only her hairdresser knows for sure.”

After this, the percentage of women who dyed their hair jumped from 7% to 40% in less than two decades!

Ilon Specht worked for a competitor of Clairol, L’Oreal. She came up with the slogan: “I use the most expensive hair color in the world, but I don’t mind spending more for L’Oreal, because I’m worth it!”

As you can see, both women summarized the particular feminist sensibility of the day in memorable epigrammatic phrases.

One of the best articles in the book.

(Read the full article here)

John Rock’s Error: What the Inventor of the Birth Control Pill Didn’t Know About Women’s Health

John Rock was an American gynecologist and obstetrician.

Also, a devout Catholic.

Which makes the title of the article already a bit strange: who would have guessed that it was a Catholic who invented the birth control pill? (Monty Python certainly not.)

Now, what the article deals with the most is a possible, and interesting, side-effect of the pill; namely, the fact that it guarantees 12 periods a year means that Western societies – and especially American women – are more prone to cancer.

It’s a taxing task for the body to be subjected to more than 400 menstrual cycles in the space of 40 years!

“What we think of as normal – frequent menses – is, in evolutionary terms, abnormal,” writes Gladwell.

In other words, women may pay more than what they bargain for when using the pill often.

(Read the full article here)

What the Dog Saw: Cesar Millan and the Movements of Mastery

In case you don’t know him, Cesar Millan is the Mexican-American host of the National Geographic show Dog Whisperer. In this essay, Gladwell tells his story, from his humble beginnings on his grandfather’s farm in Sinaloa – where he was called El Perrero, “the dog boy” – to his present-day successes.

The epiphanic moment in Milan’s life: when he realized that “to succeed in the world he could not be just a dog whisperer. He needed to be a people whisperer.”

And his techniques have done precisely that – because they now help two species communicate better. Gladwell unravels what goes on through Milan’s head while he trains a dog – but also what probably occurs in the dog’s head when it is being trained.

(Read the full article here)

Part 2: Theories, Predictions and Diagnoses

“The second section,” writes Gladwell, “is devoted to theories, to ways of organizing experience. How should we think about homelessness, or financial scandals, or a disaster like the crash of the Challenger?

Well, let’s see!

Open Secrets: Enron, Intelligence and the Perils of Too Much Information

That it’d be possible for people to one day start a sentence with “Enron was…” would have made little to no sense to anyone as late as 2000.

And yet, just a year later, Enron, employer of almost 30,000 people and “America’s Most Innovative Company” for six years in a row, filed for bankruptcy.

You should have already learned a lot about the Enron scandal by now, so why should you read Malcolm Gladwell’s article?

Here’s a great reason:

Because it uses the scandal to unravel one of the paradoxes of our age.

Namely, how it is not lies and secrets, but an abundance of available information that obfuscates the darker sides of the complex organizations in the modern world.

(Read the full article here)

Million-Dollar Murray: Why Problems Like Homelessness May Be Easier to Solve Than to Manage

This article is already a classic.

It follows the daily struggles of Murray Barr, “a bear of a man, an ex-marine, six feet tall and heavyset,” but also a hopeless alcoholic roaming the streets of Reno, Nevada.

His routine?

Getting drunk, falling over, then being taken by police officers to the hospital; when he is released, he starts his routine all over again.

Gladwell’s interest in Barr?

Patrick O’Brien and Steve Johns – the policemen who had spent almost two decades years picking up Murray – realized that Murray’s hospital bill is higher than anyone’s in the country.

O’Brien surprising conclusion: “It costs us one million dollars to not do something about Murray.”

(Read the full article here)

The Picture Problem: Mammography, Air Power, and the Limits of Looking

The Picture Problem – at least if you ask us, the least interesting article of the collection –deals with the extent of the faith we put in images.

You see, we are pretty aware nowadays that we see in many images precisely what we want to see in them; and even though sometimes finding the right info in them is similar to searching for a polar bear in a snowstorm, we believe that we are able to do that.

However, that’s not how the Iraq War started.

(Read the full article here)

Something Borrowed: Should a Charge of Plagiarism Ruin Your life?

This article deals with the play Frozenby Bryony Lavery, first performed in 1998 to great acclaim. In fact, in 2004, the play made it to Broadway and was nominated for a Tony Award for Best Play.

However, that very same year, Lavery was accused of plagiarizing some parts of it, taking at least 675 words from the book Guilty by Reason of Insanity by Dorothy Lewis and a, especially, a 1997 article about Lewis written by none other than Malcolm Gladwell.

Gladwell uses the event to discuss the difference between plagiarizing and borrowing and the copyright laws and its limitations.

(Read the full article here)

Connecting the Dots: The Paradoxes of Intelligence Reform

In Connecting the Dots,Gladwell examines the notoriously secret world of military intelligence and turns it on its head (as he usually does).

His goal?

Figuring out a better and more effective way for intelligence agencies to identify terrorists and terroristic patterns.

And, of course, stop them before its too late.

(Read the full article here)

The Art of Failure: Why Some People Choke and Others Panic

There’s a difference between choking and panicking, says, Gladwell, and it’s a big one.

Namely, choking is a kind of failure which results from thinking too much over matters you’ve previously mastered.

This often happens in sports: no matter how good a player is, sometimes the pressure of a moment overwhelms him, and he suddenly leaves the comfortable world of the unconscious and is suddenly unable to shoot properly.

On the other hand, panicking is a failure which results from the absence of knowledge.

In this case, you’re in a situation you’ve never been before, and you have no idea what to do.

As you can see, there’s a big difference between the two. Gladwell paints it vividly in this essay.

(Read the full article here)

Blowup: Who Can Be Blamed for a Disaster Like the Challenger Explosion? No One, And We’d Better Get Used to It

This essay is about the Challenger disaster, and Malcolm Gladwell offers a fresh pair of eyes to it.

His conclusion is a depressing one: no matter what we do, in some spheres of life, disasters will always happen, simply because there are just too many factors which can contribute to them happening:

What accidents like the Challenger should teach us is that we have constructed a world in which the potential for high-tech catastrophe is embedded in the fabric of day-to-day life. At some point in the future — for the most mundane of reasons, and with the very best of intentions — a NASA spacecraft will again go down in flames.
We should at least admit this to ourselves now. And if we cannot — if the possibility is too much to bear — then our only option is to start thinking about getting rid of things like space shuttles altogether.

(Read the full article here)

Part 3: Personality, Character and Intelligence

“The third section,” writes Gladwell, “wonders about the predictions we make about people. How do we know whether someone is bad, or smart, or capable of doing something really well?”

“As you will see,” he adds, “I’m skeptical about how accurately we can make any of those judgments.”

Late Bloomers: Why Do We Equate Genius with Precocity?

In this article, Gladwell shows that there are two different types of creative geniuses: child prodigies and late bloomers.

He uses Pablo Picasso as a metaphor for the former; and Paul Cézanne as a metaphor for the latter.

But that’s not where the differences stop.

According to Gladwell, the Picassos of the world create impulsively and quickly; the Cézannes slowly and incrementally; the former know what they want to do before they start doing it; the latter experiment with their vision while creating it.

The point?

Well, see the title: both are their own type of geniuses, and it’s wrong to consider only the Picassos of the world.

(Read the full article here)

Most Likely to Succeed: How Do We Hire When We Can’t Tell Who’s Right for The Job?

In this article, Gladwell tries to point many of the problems inherent in the process of predicting job performance and evaluating talent in numerous different spheres.

He mainly focuses on three: financial analysts, teachers, and quarterbacks.

Gladwell’s analysis of the failings of the NFL Draft caused a very energetic debate in the intellectual spheres of the Internet soon after this article was published, mainly because it seemed strange to say that the NFL Draft was fraught with errors.

According to Gladwell (and the Berri/Simmons study he cites), per play, “quarterbacks taken in positions 11 through 90 in the draft actually slightly outplay those more highly paid and lauded players taken in the draft’s top ten positions.”

Among others, Steven Pinker noted that this “is simply not true.”

It turns out that it is; but, then again, it’s far from simple why and Gladwell may be wrong on this one.

(Read the full article here)

Dangerous Minds: Criminal Profiling Made Easy

In “Dangerous Minds: Criminal Profiling Made Easy,” Gladwell yet again casts doubt over our capability to predict some future event based on the present.

In this case, he examines the methods and practices of the Behavioral Analysis Unit (BAU) of the FBI and shows that, in reality, “the whole business is a lot more complicated than the FBI imagines.”

In other words, that, for all those CSI TV shows, psychological profiling has never been empirically proven.

(Read the full article here)

The Talent Myth: Are Smart People Overrated?

To those who read us regularly, the idea that talent is overrated should be nothing new.

In The Talent Myth, Gladwell revisits this idea through the example of Enron, a company which took so much pride in its employees that one of its CEOs once noted: “The only thing that differentiates Enron from our competitors is our people, our talent.”

 “Enron hired and rewarded the very best and the very brightest,” Gladwell writes in this thought-provoking essay, “and now they are in bankruptcy.”


Let us answer that question with a rhetorical question: “What if Enron failed not in spite of its talent mindset, but because of it? What if smart people are overrated?”

(Read the full article here)

The New-Boy Network: What Do Job Interviews Really Tell Us?

Story-driven – as all Gladwell articles are – The New Boy Network tries to answer the question posited in the subtitle “what do job interviews really tell us?”

Apparently, some of the things they do are not the ones you’d expect them to.

The main reason: something called the Fundamental Attribution Error.

The Fundamental Attribution Error – or FAE, for short – is “the tendency to believe that what people do reflects who they are.”

In job interviews, it means that interviewers believe that interviewees would always behave the way they do during the interview.

This, of course, is not the case: excellent workers are sometimes very nervous during an interview, while excellent rhetoricians may be pretty average workers.

You want to avoid making the FAE?

Instead of informal conversations, use structured three-way interviews.

(Read the full article here)

Troublemakers: What Pit Bulls Can Teach Us About Crime

Breed-specific legislation (BSL) – in case you don’t know – is a law which prohibits the keeping of particular types of dogs.

The reason?

They may be dangerous.

The usual culprit?

Pit bulls.

In this article, Gladwell argues that it’s not that simple; in other words, that any dog can be trained to be evil, and that no dog is genetically predisposed to violence.

If you don’t believe us, just think of Pete the Pup, the dog from The Little Rascals; yup, he was an American Pit Bull terrier.

The simple solution?

Laws should target dog owners and not dogs.

(Read the full article here)

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“What the Dog Saw Quotes”

You don't manage a social wrong. You should be ending it. Click To Tweet What does it say about a society that it devotes more care and patience to the selection of those who handle its money than of those who handle its children? Click To Tweet To a worm in horseradish, the world is horseradish. Click To Tweet Happiness, in one sense, is a function of how closely our world conforms to the infinite variety of human preference. Click To Tweet There is more courage and heroism in defying the human impulse, in taking the purposeful and painful steps to prepare for the unimaginable. Click To Tweet

Our Critical Review

What the Dog Saw is Malcolm Gladwell at his best; and that’s basically as good as any modern popularizer of science at his/her best.

But, really, don’t take our word for it.

Check this book out and see for it yourself.

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Addicted to Outrage PDF Summary

Addicted to Outrage PDF Summary

How Thinking Like a Recovering Addict Can Heal the Country

If America resembles a drug addict or any other form of an abuser, that might be a bit disturbing for most Americans.

Nonetheless, it portrays an accurate profile of the political impasse that seeps into everyday life.

The idea of solving this is through the help of recovery programs that ought to bring the US back on its feet as a global superpower.

Who Should Read “Addicted to Outrage”? And Why?

The unpuzzling of the title is indeed a baffling challenge for most people. Even the word outrage can be put into so many different forms and rephrased at one’s preference.

In this connotation, it reveals the devastating effects of nurturing a mindset that prefers emotions over facts.

In addition, we feel urged to prompt every law-abiding American and protector of freedom of speech and thought, to give “Addicted to Outrage” a quick scan.

About Glenn Beck

Glenn Beck

Glenn Beck is a well-known political commentator, radio host and founder of “TheBlaze.” His supporters often praise him for his endless striving to limit government control, low taxes, promote freedom of speech and preserve American values.

On the left, he is often criticized for not being supportive of minority groups, among other things.

“Addicted to Outrage PDF Summary”

Glenn starts by explaining the problem of “not listening” to the other side. We nurture this little voice in our heads which points out the following “I am right, and he/she is wrong.”

It is a concept that not only undermines political progress but also puts the entire nation on standby. For instance, do you know that 20% of the Obama supporters which are evidently Democrats voted for Donald Trump in 2016?

Imagine your shock, but that’s the truth.

Demopublicans, as Glenn likes to refer to people who are prepared to listen, are not obliged to agree with any side, and draw out the positives from both.

One particular example most accurately depicts the stalemate and outrage that began cropping up with the arrival of Trump’s administration.

The border kids issue was heavily propagated and disseminated as soon as Trump took power. The truth is that under Obama, the problem also existed and what’s worse, the Democratic Party just didn’t pay any attention whatsoever to the victims of the organized human trafficking.

Drug cartels operating in Mexico realized that by smuggling kids over the border, they could then sold them to “relatives.” It was a process with very few if any legal ramifications. During the uncontrollable influx of refugees, Obama’s administration didn’t know what to do with the border issues, and the system simply crashed.

Glenn Beck, one of the few exclusive reporters there on the scene, recalls that the American public was not informed of this impasse.

As it turns out, any attempt to debunk the “horrors” committed under Trump will automatically transform you into a monster or Hitler.

If you look at the facts, you’ll see that 70% of Americans (both Republicans and Democrats) argue that children should not be separated from their parents at the border.

So, what’s the outrage?

Should we create a country with zero law-enforcement at the borders, and abandon the idea of regulating immigration? – No one is actually sure what the left is suggesting that must be done.

If a country is unable to balance out justice and mercy, the system will be abused, to say the least.

Glenn contends that the chaos instigated here is not going to solve itself, nor by embroiling in political squabbles. The media, on the other hand, should learn to present the real deal and avoid spreading misleading information that could only fire up the whole country.

The core of the solution is the idea of being able to separate refugees with valid papers from those with a criminal background.

How does the “recovery” idea fits into all of this?

Unlike the much-vaunted information about handling addicts, the modern-day addiction is not merely linked to intake of chemicals. It can also be used to describe any sort of attachment especially the one depicting the social stigmas linked to virtue-signaling.

The social acceptance, as a concept, is gaining momentum and it adds to the boiling atmosphere that is raging the American society.

Being under constant emotional fire, and outraged is praised as a way to encourage others to be morally “aware.”

This intellectual awareness is often perceived through the lens of criticism, as merely a hypocritical overview of the societal order.  

Let’s take a look at a practical example:

Each thumbs-up or like can induce a surge of dopamine. The same logic applies to surges of serotonin and oxytocin.

The restlessness is truly shocking especially if you take into account that Western Society has never been freer than nowadays. People are well fed, prompted into education, allowed to pursue better salary, share their viewpoints, express discontent, etc.

Despite all of this, the media often portrays an image of total anarchy designed to oppress the weak.

If that’s the case, then how come the U.S. population that falls under homeless and unsheltered is less than 0.1 percent – the lowest in history. How come the homicide rate continues to decline since the 1970s?

Hollywood also has been revolutionized, and this alteration is not linked to tyranny by any stretch of the imagination. The fatalities on campus have also declined in recent years, and have dropped by a staggering 75% in the past 40 years.

Which mainstream media outlet has ever broadcasted any of this? CNN, FOX? – I don’t think so.

Sometimes, being outrageous is totally justified, but most of the times, it’s merely a virtue-signaling doctrine. Glenn Beck even provides the readers with a real-life illustration of how pathetic the society has become:

We seem to be screaming about existential issues like whether Kylie Jenner is ignorant, racist, or both for braiding her hair into cornrows.

If this is our biggest concern, then how outrageous should some parts of the world be after being bullied, raped, murdered, unable to find a job, no access to fresh water, etc.

To that extent, we will also mention the case when a liberal sex-education instructor referred to genitals as male/female. It was seen as an attack on the gender neutrality, and she was forced to apologize for presuming a person’s gender based on the reproductive parts.

It’s simply ridiculous.

The stigma attached to Post-Modernism

Sadly, the American public is constantly bombarded with news of the world saturated with identity politics. As if the forefathers fought and died for nothing. No one seems to appreciate the freedom all people have to make their own life choices.

For a political organization that exerts itself in the attempt to enforce political correctness, it fails to give wide latitude to figures whose thoughts are not in tune with their agenda. We learn to neglect basic biology, neglect human laws, overlook the virtues of logic, and all but focus on emotions.

For everything wrong, blame the patriarchy and adopt a selfless attitude.

The Weinstein case depicts the struggle of a liberal professor at Evergreen State College who dared to challenge the system and as a result got a slap on the wrist.

His presence on campus became a burden, as a rally of infuriated students demanded his resignation. The stalemate reached a boiling point when the organizers requested that all “Whites” leave campus for “Day of Absence.”

He replied:

There is a huge difference between a group or coalition deciding to voluntarily absent themselves from a shared space in order to highlight their vital and underappreciated roles, and a group or coalition encouraging another group to go away.

He was bullied, nagged and labeled a racist and white supremacist. At one point, he was even held hostage by those who “value” freedom of speech.

The values that Bret Weinstein fought for, cross swords with the dominant rhetoric of the radical left which subdues free speech. The Bill of Rights act contains those principles which ought to be respected and cultivated.

We believe that this example serves the purpose of pinpointing the bloodbath that occurred in the 20th century.

Someone would claim that radical leftists demand justice, but as far as truth goes, they demand control.

The end of humanity

Renowned scientists and entrepreneurs fear that technology might be the cause of world destruction. Therefore, the likes of Elon Musk leave all possibilities on the table, even the craziest of all – to colonize Mars in years to come.

Millions are going to lose their jobs, as artificial intelligence is going to replace most of the workforce.

The breakdown in traditional structure leaves many on the verge of extinction. The confidence in the government is shaking, and the universal principles the world has stood by since the end of WW2 are put under scrutiny.

Glenn also reflects on the threads that resonate with the two types of Americans: active and asleep. Universities, media, and everything else under the sun is apparently being used as a tool for mass indoctrination and lie-spreading.

If you fall into the “sleep” category, then you’ll definitely be prone to collective thinking and identity politics. Moreover, politicians need an adversary, much like Hitler needed an arch enemy (the Jews) to facilitate his rise to power.

Then, they can point out the problem and put the blame on someone or something. For instance, the American people these days are led to believe that the problem with wages lies in Mexico and China.

iPhone production, case in point.

American market cannot compete with the “slave labor” offered in China and South America. Americans are not prepared to work under the same conditions that an average Chinese finds acceptable.

When slave labor is replaced by automation, you can bet your house on the theory that jobs will not be returning to the States. It’s straightforward for one to assess the economic difficulties a big company would face to do manufacturing in the US.

Glenn also holds in high regard the idea of contemplating before giving your opinion on something. Allowing someone to organize its thoughts before answering a question it’s truly the formula for productive discourse.

  • T – stands for truthful;
  • H – stands for helpful;
  • I – stands for inspiring;
  • N – stands for necessary;
  • K – stands for kind

The Ultimate Program

The “Glenn Beck Coming Together to Save America” Program consolidates pretty much everything we tried to include in this summary. It is also helped by the recovery programs which represent the fundamental basis for change. In addition, you are entitled to use whatever term you deem appropriate.

The program in itself is rigid, and one should not worry about making political alliances whatsoever. You can rely on your own agenda, and lean on policies which resonate with your values and those of your community.

Here’s the step-by-step process:

  • Admit you have a problem
  • Understand and accept the potential consequences of taking no action
  • Find places of agreement
  • Take a moral inventory
  • Have faith that doing this will make a significant difference in your life and in the future of this country
  • Determine the facts and deal only with facts
  • Set realistic goals
  • Don’t label people
  • Open yourself to new possibilities
  • Be generous of spirit and share your discoveries with others

Key Lessons from “Addicted to Outrage”

1.                  The effects of ignoring basic biology
2.                  People are free to make their own choices
3.                  Systematic racism is a myth

The effects of ignoring basic biology

In as much as we all like to feel sympathy toward people who can’t seem to accept their biological gender, it is totally unacceptable to discard the biological implications.

As an illustration: such a move will give unlimited freedom to sex offenders to abuse the system by simply making a claim.

People are free to make their own choices

Today’s world gives you the opportunity to do whatever you deem fit, but you mustn’t dictate your terms to the rest of the world.

One must not use legislation to enforce dictated speech which threatens the core of the American Constitution.

Systematic racism is a myth

Most lefties want to capitalize on the feelings of minority groups by constantly reminding them of their “underdog status.”

By doing so, they manage to keep them obedient and dependent on the government.

It is a strategy that generates votes.

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“Addicted to Outrage Quotes”

Moral outrage is also effective as a shield from judgment. Being morally outraged seems to function very effectively as a mechanism to protect the purveyors of outrage against any evaluation of their actions, tactics, honesty, or… Click To Tweet Outrage is also an exceptional weapon that can pierce the armor of nearly any foe. It’s like a bow with three magically tipped arrows: shame, guilt, and fear. Click To Tweet Our “outrage” over the last three or four presidents is coming with a very high price. Click To Tweet The idea of rights belonging to the people was and still very much is a new and unique concept. It means that we are not only created equal but we cannot even create a body or a government that is more than equal to its life force, the… Click To Tweet If we are going to save this country, we have to make a commitment to respect other people. I’m not saying you have to agree with them, or even like them. Click To Tweet

Our Critical Review

In all honesty, we don’t feel like we possess the expertise nor the political experience to criticize the US establishment.

With that being said, we felt connected to the message conveyed through this book, and the idea of valuing freedom of expression.

Take notes, and take a critical overview of the whole situation.

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The Fifth Risk PDF Summary

The Fifth Risk PDF SummaryThe general public demands professionalism in dealing with all sorts of crisis such as terrorist attacks, tsunamis, hurricanes, pandemics, etc.

However, most of the calamities take a different shape, and ordinary people can barely recognize them.

The capability of responding to long-term risks should be the embodiment of competence and serve as a reminder to every new administration.

According to many, Trump’s administration exhibits short-sighted policy and neglects long-term problems.

Is this yet another leftist propaganda or the real deal? – It’s up to you to assess the predicament.  

Who Should Read “The Fifth Risk”? And Why?

If you don’t want to take the blame for a potential setback, then you’d be better off not understanding the problem in the first place. It’s a strategy that allows many politicians to emphasize transient gains, and mislead the public.

The Fifth Risk zooms in on the institutional policies and Federal governing that are in need of an overhaul. It stands to reason why most people believe that the power of the bureaucracy should be curtailed.

With that being said, we can say that “The Fifth Risk” would be a good fit for those who have some interest in US politics.

Michael LewisAbout Michael Lewis

Michael Lewis is an outstanding author and financial journalist who has a passion for economics and innovation.

He obtained his B.A. from Princeton University and M.A. from London School of Economics.

He is the author of Moneyball.

“The Fifth Risk PDF Summary”

2016 US presidential elections have elicited a huge interest from the global community. On the morning of November 9th, 2016, the US Department of Energy was preparing to host both Democrats and Republicans, depending on the trajectory of the elections.

When Obama’s administration took over eight years earlier, many folks stormed into the Department of Energy and other Federal institutions.

Shockingly, Donald Trump became the 45th US president, by utilizing unconventionality as the main thrust of his message.

However, on the first day, Trump’s officials were nowhere to be found.

No places were brimming with his representatives as if the world had come to a halt. It was dead silence! Prior to Obama’s takeover of the country, George W. Bush’s administration had successfully prepared a transfer of power.

Obama wanted to ensure an even smoother transition, and help the new administration to seize control over the vast and complex federal network of over 2 million employees.

Thomas Pyle, head of the American Energy Alliance was put in charge of the “Landing Team” that Trump requested. Thomas didn’t divulge any information regarding his designation but took everyone by surprise including DOE Chief of Staff Kevin Knobloch with his lethargy.

Roughly a month after the elections, a meeting was held between Thomas Pyle, Energy Secretary Ernest Moniz, Deputy Secretary Sherwood-Randall, and Knobloch.

During the intercourse, many things cropped up, but Thomas refrained himself from actively participating in the conversation.

During Obama’s tenure, Moniz became a crucial figure in the attempt to prevent Iran from developing nuclear weapons. He was reputed to have unsurpassable expertise in nuclear science and many other areas, but despite all of this, Pyle had no intentions in hearing what he had to say.

Eventually, Thomas Pyle sent a list of 74 questions and demanded quick answers. The DOE employees and staffers implied that they were unable to prepare the Trump’s administration for the challenge because they weren’t interested in absorbing the fundamental principles of the Federal Government.

Probably the only thing that Trump’s administration did before the Inauguration Day was to release all of Obama’s appointees in the federal government from their duties.

The Department of Energy feared that Trump’s representatives were unaware of the potential calamities that may ensue as a result of ineptitude.

$30 billion budget was assigned to the DOE to continue its operations and ensure nuclear balance in the world.

In June 2017, Trump’s administration still struggled to penetrate all elements of the federal government. The takeover was far from done. The Patent Office was still without its top executive as Trump hadn’t appointed anyone to that position.

The Federal Emergency Management Agency (FEMA), Transportation Security Administration (TSA) and the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) were on the same wavelength.

Two former US presidents, George W. Bush, and Barack Obama had managed to conduct most of their managerial operations by that time, but Trump failed to do likewise.

One person managed to get into office, and that was former Texas governor Rick Perry. In 2011, he even avowed that he plans on dismissing three major departments of the federal government:

  • Education
  • Commerce
  • DOE ( but he didn’t dare to say it)

The DOE had a fearsome reputation and a program to render low-interest loans to companies which sought alternative energy sources. By stimulating energy efficiency, the DOE could benefit in the upcoming period.

At the same time, the Federal Government had turned into a public spectacle. Never, throughout American history, had the people been so keen to understand what is going on inside the federal buildings as they are under Trump.

The American public was worried about the quality of service rendered, and the potential ineptitude that may occur.  

Michael Lewis reveals that by the summer of 2017, he had broken words with dozens of experts regarding the whole risk-facing factor during the transition. The Federal Government shared a burden and liability for any calamity that may ensue under their watch.

American society is in need of expertise to deal with the crisis of every kind.

A throwback to 2005 when the Congress enacted a $70 billion loan program under the supervision of John MacWilliams. In an attempt to reinvigorate the energy technologies, the Federal Government intended to stimulate research and innovation in the private sector.

Such a move could then hasten the harnessing of all energy sources and plow back the profits into the market.

The biggest gamble was the stock market, which didn’t endorse risky moves that are in need of time to pay off. Tremendous uncertainty emerged because harnessing solar energy is not on the same wavelength as creating a new cool app.

Unlike many others, John MacWilliams reaped the benefits of the free market without being subjugated in any way whatsoever. His colleagues at Heritage Foundation were not given the same opportunity as most of their work felt under heavy scrutiny.

According to his convictions, government intervention could help growing industries in their soaring attempt to increase overall consumption.

After the establishment, the energy industry began to experience its first signs of growth. On a political plan, the loan program had been regarded as a crushing defeat. What came as a shock was the fact that most of the elites focused their efforts on discrediting the project by pinpointing the Solyndra defeat.

The right-wingers capitalized on this downside and accused the government of wrongdoing, meaningless spending, and fraud. It became a political burden that no one had the guts to carry.

In late June 2017, Michael Lewis embarked on a journey to fulfill his mission by getting to the bottom of every risk. It wasn’t easy to get a bird’s eye view of the situation, which MacWilliams endeavored to bring to light.  

In order to make a little headway in the process, he had to identify the factors which pose a threat to the American lifestyle.

On the grounds that DOE under Secretary Moniz was compelled to make a list of disasters that could happen, Lewis had a tough time in understanding the stigma. One of the scenarios included a massive relocation of millions of Americans from Eastern Seaboard to the Midwest.

Another scenario was a hurricane hitting Texas, and a third one was a devastating earthquake in the Pacific Northwest that could destabilize America’s power supply.

The fourth one included the electrical grid.

Anyway, when Lewis was curious to proceed and get a clear definition of the fifth risk, a strained silence emerged. It seemed as though nothing is explainable.

He assumed that the reason behind this stalemate was, in fact, the classified information MacWilliams was unable to share. He did utter a few words: Project Management.

If you are one of those who ponder a lot before making a conclusion, there is another way of interpreting John MacWilliams’ fifth risk. It depicts a society whose ineptitude of handling long-term risks is compensated by short-term solutions.

It is a kind of habit.

The bottom line is, nurturing a certain agenda or worldview can often get into the way of science. According to Michael Lewis, Trump’s administration decided to remain ignorant about real issues, and leave them unsolved.

However, he doesn’t accuse Trump of inventing this political expression.

People Risk

Ali Zaidi is a Pakistani-born American who served at the White House Office of Management and Budget (OBM). He also provided professional assistance in the implementation of the Climate Action Plan under Presiden’s orders.

Before President Obama took office, Ali was struck upon hearing his words: “Poverty is not a family value.

When Obama won the elections, Ali obtained his college degree from Harvard and sought a place in the new administration. Upon landing a job at the White House, he faced multiple challenges. One day, Ali was assigned a task to take a look at the budget of the USDA (US Department of Agriculture) and was mesmerized by its complexity.

$220billion in assets represented the backbone of American diet and consumption.

This Federal Institution, unlike others, was consisted of bipartisan who shared the same values, more or less. The staff in charge of this Federal branch wanted to prepare a warm welcome for Trump’s administration and guide them through the process.

The first day after the elections, no one showed up.

Thirty days have passed since the USDA staff had laid eyes upon the new representatives. It was just one guy, Brian Klippenstein. A couple of weeks before the Inauguration, three more joined and had a brief meeting with the USDA to absorb the insights on how things flew around here.

But that didn’t rejuvenate the USDA.

Kevin Concannon was compelled to come out of retirement and preside over the “Food, Nutrition, and Consumer Services” inside the USDA. At 70 years of age, someone had to lay the groundwork until the Trump representatives were ready to run the show.

In January 2017, they finally arrived.

It was frightening mostly because of the responsibilities such institution generates, and the expertise needed to run it.

Politicians can be devious, and that’s not something you should get particularly upset about.

Key Lessons from “The Fifth Risk”

1.      The effects of good management
2.      Energy reliance can be a dangerous game
3.      Votes = responsibility

The effects of good management

A proficient leader can galvanize others into action and engross them in any project.

Therefore, it doesn’t really matter what your sphere of interests is, but how you handle long-term risks.

Energy reliance can be a dangerous game

The Federal Government of the US realized that the private sector should be financed in their attempt to find alternative energy sources that could bring “energetic” balance.

In other words, what the DOE should have done years ago, is dismissing short-term policies and focus solely on a long-term solution.

But that’s easier said than done!

Votes = responsibility

Michael Lewis criticizes the inability of Trump’s administration to take command over the Federal Government.

To that extent, it’s only logical to endorse a smooth transition of power where the people are represented in every legislative body.

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“The Fifth Risk Quotes”

There was a rift in American life that was now coursing through the American government. It wasn’t between Democrats and Republicans. It was between the people who were in it for the mission, and the people who were in it for the money. Click To Tweet

My biggest concern is the misuse of science to support policies. Click To Tweet

Trump’s budget, like the social forces behind it, is powered by a perverse desire—to remain ignorant. Click To Tweet

The only thing any of us can do completely on our own is to have the start of a good idea. Click To Tweet

The knowledge that is never created, because you have ceased to lay the groundwork for it. Click To Tweet

Our Critical Review

Not just politicians, but we all have to deal with risks and withstand the pressure that goes along with them.

In the same fashion, politicians ought to put ideological differences aside and allocate the country’s resources in the most effective manner.

This book tells a great deal about various political inconsistencies and how to tackle them.

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Killing the SS PDF Summary

Killing the SS PDF SummaryThe Hunt for the Worst War Criminals in History

We all have heard stories and legends regarding the events which shaped the world and balanced the scales after WW2.

Nonetheless, we rarely come across information about operations that were considered top secret in post-war Europe.

To compensate for the dearth of concrete information, Bill O’Reilly & Martin Dugard divulged the Nazi hunt that swept the world.

Who Should Read “Killing the SS”? And Why?

Evidently, not all mass murderers and assassins were brought to justice after the collapse of the German Reich. Most of the Nazi criminals devised a plan and prepared an escape route that could have been their ticket to freedom.

Nonetheless, the Allies were not too keen to allow the high-ranking Nazi Officials to get away with everything they’ve done.

To that extent, we believe that “Killing the SS” is an enlightening classic that puts an end to all rumors and brings about clarity with regards to Nazi involvement in crimes against humanity.

As such, we believe it is suitable for all history lovers.

Bill O'ReillyAbout Bill O’Reilly & Martin Dugard

Bill O’Reilly is a renowned American journalist, author, and reporter. His journalism career began at WNEP-TV, and since then he received many accolades for his astonishing professionalism.

Martin Dugard is an American author residing in California.

He and Bill have a long history of working together and co-authoring a dozen books all related to politics, one way or the other.

“Killing the SS PDF Summary”

We have all heard a great deal about Nazi Germany and the crimes committed against humanity. Society these days, feels like some of the story is left in the shadows, and more should be revealed with regards to the whole “witch hunt” on the notorious SS officers.

Heinrich Himmler, the blatant executioner, was the head of this organization, which relentlessly raged terror all across conquered Europe. During the worst periods of WW2, Jews became the primary target and ended up being deported to concentration camps in Poland, mostly.

Their fate was sealed as the SS orchestrated the mass murder or extermination of Jews with approximately 6 million victims.

May 8th, 1945, Germany surrendered to the Allies. Many of the surviving Jews found themselves in the midst of the conflict between East and West.

The Soviets have confiscated their homes in post-war Ukraine, Poland, Hungary, while the Germans have tried to exterminate them to the very last person.

Their skeletal appearance and sickly physique depicted the atrocities and calamitous damage done to them.

Meanwhile, high-ranking SS officers prepared for a getaway, as Himmler shaved off his mustache, and carried a cyanide capsule with him just in case things go south.

Among them was Otto Ohlendorf, a notorious war criminal, and commander of the Einsatzgruppen a special operations group that killed civilians and plundered the conquered lands. Livestock, grain reserves, and pretty much everything was taken from the people.

They intended to travel South to the Harz Mountains and then lay low for a while. The next best thing would have been to climb the Alps and perhaps leave Germany.

On August 10th, 1944 a secret meeting was held in Strasbourg. The attendee were high ranking military officials, members of the secret police, industrialists, and politicians who conspired to support the Nazi regime in post-war Europe.

Among them was a French undercover agent who passed the notes of the meeting to the US Secretary of State.  

Himmler and his collaborators counted on transporting large quantities of gold and money through neutral countries, but it wasn’t as easy as they planned.

Upon Germany’s unconditional capitulation, at the North Sea port town of Brunsbüttel, they faced their first major obstacle. Himmler accompanied by Major Macher and Colonel Grothmann crossed Elbe river with the help of a local fisherman.

The next morning they ran into a group of Wehrmacht soldiers and blended into the unit.

For the second time, Himmler had a decision to make – Was it safe to cross the bridge over the Oste river? Weeks prior to Germany’s defeat, he could have used an airplane to go beyond enemy lines, but he rejected this proposition, as he intended to jeopardize Anglo-Soviet partnership.

Himmler ended up being detained by British authorities. He was then stripped and thoroughly searched by the British officers. The interrogators found a cyanide capsule, as Himmler replied: That’s my medicine.

Upon conducting a more thorough search, they located another capsule in Himmler’s mouth. They failed to take it away as the notorious executioner bit down hard and ended his life. He was buried in an unmarked grave near Lüneburg.

Unfortunately for the Allies, many more SS officials tried to escape from the face of justice, as the witch hunt commenced.

Dr. Josef Mengele was one of the first Nazi collaborators who understood what could happen if the Soviet troops capture them. He turned his views to the West, alongside many others who feared Soviet retribution.

The so-called Angel of Death performed many experiments on the Jews, and aware of the crimes committed, he knew of his fate if captured.

Bormann, Mengele, Barbie, Eichmann are just a handful of Nazis who used their position to arrange their escape in neutral countries. The not yet fallen Reich was still able to provide these high-ranking executioners with passports and documentation needed to bypass hostile patrols.

To counter this cowardice desertion, a group of men labeled as “Nazi hunters” was preparing for a massive hunt that was about to bring justice.

With the Cold War approaching, The United States Office of Strategic Services (OSS) the predecessor of the CIA began recruiting top-ranking Nazi Officials. They were to be given clean papers and employed as federal spies to perform various operations mostly to sabotage Soviet Intelligence and expansionism.

The most notorious of all was the “The Butcher of Lyon” – Klaus Barbie.

Many organizations had a role in Nazi escape, whose members tried to evade capture. Vatican was allowed to function in its entirety and did nothing when the Jews were round up and executed by SS squads.

Adolf Eichmann, one of the instigators of the “Final Solution,” professed that he never killed a single Jew and had nothing to do with the deportation and execution of the Jewish population. His claim was by no means acceptable and endorsed.

In 1960, he was eventually arrested by Mossad’s top agents in Argentina and smuggled into Israel. He was then tried and hanged for his war crimes against humanity.

But, let’s go back a bit and see how the witch hunt intensified over the years.

Benjamin Ferencz, a Jewish American soldier who survived the D-Day and the horrors in Normandy, is now a war-time hero. He was born in Romania and was one of the lucky immigrants who fled to the US just before the Nazi rhetoric was brought to life.

Upon visiting the concentration camps, Sergeant Ferencz was capable of understanding the extent of the atrocities committed by the hands of those who refer to them as Nazis.

The Nuremberg trials are a slight beacon of hope led by chief prosecutors Roman Rudenko (USSR) and Robert H. Jackson (USA).

On March 13th, 1946 Hermann Göring, the highest ranking prisoner and ex-head of the Luftwaffe was called upon to testify. Throughout the process, he remained confident in the Nazi ideal as he blamed the people for the defeat of Germany.   

He was sentenced to death by handing and died on October 15th, 1946 after taking a cyanide capsule delivered to him by an American soldier.  

Benjamin Ferencz was appointed chief prosecutor at the Einsatzgruppen trial at Nuremberg. He singled out 24 Nazi officers who were directly involved in the massacre of 33,771 Jews and were the “implementers” of Hitler’s anti-semitic policies.

Everybody awaited the sentencing and the testimonies of witnesses who were at the scene or had some additional information. Benjamin Ferencz didn’t need any witnesses due to the fact that he had in his possession documents which revealed SS atrocities in Kyiv.

Out of the 14 SS officers sentenced to death by hanging, only 4 will actually feel the rope around their neck.

The rest of them were released in the late 50s; gen. Otto Ohlendorf (the mastermind) was not among them.

He was to be hanged on June 8th, 1951.

Prior to his death, he uttered the following sentence: “The Jews in America will suffer for this.”

The name Adolf Eichmann yet again crops up in the discussion. He protested his innocence until the very last breath and denied any involvement whatsoever in the massacre of Jews in the Soviet Union.

In 1944, Hungary had the largest intact Jewish community in Europe. Himmler dispatched “the expert” of the Jewish Solution, Adolf Eichmann, to arrange the transport and take care of the details.

After the war, he grew impatient, worried that the Nazi hunters could get to him. In 1950, he received unwanted attention, as some sort of a Nazi defiance and decided to settle down for good using former Nazi links.

He prepared an escape plan using the same route as Dr. Josef Mengele did a year earlier. The hunted Nazi criminal boarded the SS Giovanna C and arrived at Rio de la Plata in Argentina 4 weeks later.

Seven years after the end of WW2, Eichmann was united with his family.

Despite the early joy, Mossad continued to chase down Nazi criminals and smuggled them into Israel. Zvi Aharoni was in charge of the hunt. He believed that Ricardo Klement (Adolf Eichmann’s fake name) was, in fact, the notorious war criminal.

Upon laying eyes on Eichmann, Aharoni wrote a report back to his authorities in Tel-Aviv. After a while, they confirmed his identity and issued an order to bring Adolf Eichmann to justice.

He was then tried and sentenced to death.

Key Lessons from “Killing the SS”

1.      The effects of history
2.      Every nation has its darkest moments
3.      Read and learn and reject stereotypes

The effects of history

Even though we want to portray our nation, culture or tradition as victims of oppression, almost no one has a clean past.

Our job is to learn from history, never to repeat it.

Every nation has its darkest moments

Try to adopt a broader look on life, and accept people as they are. Try not to be judgmental and understand that every culture had its good and bad moments.

We are all here to learn, and whatever was done in the past, should remain there.

Read and learn and reject stereotypes

As a sequel to the previous statement, one must really reject socially-imposed ideologies and stay with both feet on the ground.

It is a decisive moment that could lead to global prosperity and peace.

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“Killing the SS Quotes”

For the first time in modern history, anti-Semitism became governmental policy. Click To Tweet

The United States Office of Strategic Services (OSS) is not aggressively pursuing war crimes prosecutions. Instead, it is recruiting members of the Nazi Party to spy against the Soviet Union. Click To Tweet

The fact of the matter is that hundreds of SS officials are now in the United States, with some even working for the CIA. This is a truth that must never be revealed. Click To Tweet

Immediately after the war, a group of Jewish partisans known as the Nokmim traveled throughout Germany and Austria hunting down former members of the SS. Also known as the Avengers, this band of mercenaries paid by the government of Great… Click To Tweet

Our Critical Review

Wise people always want to hear both sides of the story to help them in their judgment. Since the end of WW2 and the defeat of Hitler, the society was keen to know more of what led the Nazis to commit all those crimes and why did they follow a lunatic.

On top of that, psychologists have pondered about the people’s choice to associate with the likes of Himmler.

Anyway, in this book, you’ll get a glimpse into the story that was whispered all these years. We find it both educational and intriguing at the same time.

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Factfulness PDF Summary

Factfulness PDF SummaryTen Reasons We’re Wrong About the World – and Why Things Are Better Than You Think

Terrorist attacks, climate change, pollution, children dying of preventable diseases…

Think that the world is worse than ever?

Well, it’s time you stopped being a pessimist and become “a very serious possibilist.”

What you need is a little dose of:


Who Should Read “Factfulness”? And Why?

Hans Rosling devoted most of his life to teaching people how to see the world more accurately.

Not only because, by his own admission, this has saved his life; but also, because it could help everybody act a little more reasonable and more in tune with what reality actually is.

“The world would be a better place if literally millions of people read the book,” wrote Bill Gates.

So, please do: you won’t regret it.

About Hans Rosling

Hans RoslingHans Rosling was a Swedish medical doctor, professor of international health, academic, statistician, and renowned public educator.

Listed by Time magazine as one of the one hundred most influential people in the world, Rosling was an adviser to UNICEF and WHO, and a co-founder of Médecins Sans Frontières in Sweden and the Gapminder Foundation.

In addition, his TED Talks – in which “global trends and economics come to vivid life” – have been viewed by almost 40 million people.

Rosling died in 2017. He spent the last years of his life writing Factfulness, his only book. The book was completed by Ola Rosling and Anna Rosling Rönnlund, Han’s son and daughter-in-law.

“Factfulness PDF Summary”

You either know and love Hans Rosling or, well, you don’t know him.

Because it’s almost impossible not to love him even if you have seen merely one of his numerous engaging and wonderful TED Talks.

We know that not many people like to read stats, and even those who do, have problems making data and tables interesting.

Bar graphs certainly help, as do line graphs and pie charts.

But what Hans Rosling did was magic!

He basically made stats alive.

Don’t believe us?

Here’s the evidence:

Now, unfortunately, Hans Rosling left us a year ago, at the age of 68.

What he left behind him was the all but finished manuscript of Factfulness, as he says in the “Introduction,” his “very last battle in [his] lifelong mission to fight devastating global ignorance” and his “last attempt to make an impact on the world: to change people’s ways of thinking, calm their irrational fears, and redirect their energies into constructive activities”:

This is data as you have never known it: it is data as therapy. It is understanding as a source of mental peace. Because the world is not as dramatic as it seems. I will teach you how to recognize overdramatic stories and give you some thinking tools to control your dramatic instincts. Then you will be able to shift your misconceptions, develop a fact-based worldview, and beat the chimps every time.

And, in a nutshell, that’s what this book is about: a definitive proof (after all, it’s stats) that the world is not as bad as it seems.

There are ten reasons why you think that it’s terrible.

Ten instincts, ten mega misconceptions which prevent you from seeing the world accurately.

Let’s have a look at each of them.

And teach you how you can fight them!

Key Lessons from “Factfulness”

1.      The Gap Instinct
2.      The Negativity Instinct
3.      The Straight Line Instinct
4.      The Fear Instinct
5.      The Size Instinct
6.      The Generalization Instinct
7.      The Destiny Instinct
8.      The Single Perspective Instinct
9.      The Blame Instinct
10.      The Urgency Instinct

The Gap Instinct

Explanation: The gap instinct is basically the ubiquitous “us vs. them” logic, which leads you to categorize people into two groups with a large gap between them.

Examples: There are rich people, and there are poor people, there are developing, and there are developed nations.

Now, that’s true, says Rosling, if you’re living in the 19th century!

Because, nowadays, almost 75% of the population fits in the gap between the developing and developed! So, it’s not really a gap anymore, is it?

A more accurate model nowadays would be a model of four income levels:

#1. Level 1: 1 billion people (14%) live on around $1 a day (compare: in the 1800s, more than 85% of humanity could be described this way!)
#2. Level 2: 3 billion people (43%) make, on average, $4 a day
#3. Level 3: 2 billion people (29%) make $16 a day
#4. Level 4: 1 billion people (14%%) earn $64 a day

How to fight it: Always look for the majority: it’s usually in the middle, where the gap is supposed to be.

The Negativity Instinct

Explanation: Thinking that things are getting worse; evolutionary, it makes sense: it is more important to notice bad things than good if you want to survive.

Examples: Most people hear all the time news of terroristic attacks and watch CSI shows and think the world is getting more violent than ever; it is most certainly not; also, things can be both bad and getting better; for example, 4% of children younger than 5 died in 2016; however, almost half of them (44%) died in 1800; so, it’s a huge improvement!

How to fight it: Expect bad news, since they are much more likely to reach you; good news is not news, but that doesn’t mean that things are not gradually improving day in day out.

The Straight-Line Instinct

Explanation: The belief that trends go up in a straight line.

Examples: The population is rising steadily ever since the Industrial Revolution, and it’s only natural to expect that it will keep on rising if things are going as great as Rosling says. however, the United Nations think that we’re close to hitting the peak precisely because of better conditions, because as poverty decreases, so do the number of children.

How to fight it: Remember that straight lines are rare in reality: you grew up until you reached your twenties, and then stopped growing; so do many other things; so, don’t assume straight lines.

The Fear Instinct

Explanation: Now that we live in a world safer than ever, we’ve started fearing things that don’t exist; in fact, that’s where your stress (and ulcers) come from.

Examples: How much do you fear terrorist attacks? A lot – especially if you’re living in, say, Paris, or New York. However, do you know that during the past decade and a half, no more than 50 people are killed by terrorists on a yearly basis? Just for comparison: on average, 5000 people die in traffic accidents in a year!

How to fight it: Don’t ever forget that frightening things get your attention because of evolutionary reasons; but if something is frightening, it doesn’t mean that it is risky: stop overestimating the risks of violence or contamination; remember this equation: risk = danger × exposure.

The Size Instinct

Explanation: The size instinct is the reason why you overestimate the things your fear instinct tells you to dread.

Examples: Listen to this: 9.5 million crimes were reported in the United States in 2016; that’s too much! But, let’s put that into perspective: 14.5 million crimes were reported in the USA 1990. Does it sound that bad now?

How to fight it: As demonstrated in the example, by putting things into perspective; lonely numbers seem impressive, but mean nothing if not compared or divided by relevant numbers; always look for comparisons.

The Generalization Instinct

Explanation: Your instinct to oversimplify things by putting them into large categories; compare to the gap instinct.

Examples: Categories are usually used as explanations, but not as the only possibilities; generalization is helpful in the former case, misleading in the latter; for example, if I say, with Malcolm Gladwell, that there are two types of geniuses (Picassos and Cézannes), I’m explaining two extremes, but ignoring those that are in-between.

How to fight it: Always question your categories; look for differences within groups and for similarities across groups; beware of vivid examples and never forget that Blakean quote: “to generalize is to be an idiot; to particularize is the alone distinction of merit.”

The Destiny Instinct

Explanation: The idea that some outcomes are unavoidable because some things never change.

Examples: Hans Rosling is Swedish and, as is well known, Sweden is one of the most liberal countries in the world; you can’t even imagine that Catholic Poland will ever be as open about topics as sex and abortion as Sweden, can’t you?

And yet, in 1960, abortion was illegal in Sweden, and, in order to get one, young pregnant Swedish students traveled to – you’ve guessed it – Poland. Five years later, Poland banned abortion, and Sweden legalized it. The lesson? There are no innate characteristics of people. Things change.

How to fight it: Never forget that slow change is change nevertheless; try to keep track of gradual improvements and to update your knowledge as often as you can. Also: talk to Grandpa; that’s the best way to be reminded how values (even those which seem to have been there forever) regularly change.

The Single Perspective Instinct

Explanation: If you see the world through pink lenses, you’ll see it pink; if you see it through black, you’ll see it dark; both are limited, single perspectives: you need to use more than one lens.

Examples: North Korea and Venezuela are two of the worst countries to live in nowadays; for comparison, South Korea and Chile are highly developed, rich, and democratic nations. The lesson? Capitalism and democracy bring peace and prosperity; communism – doom.

However, if you visited these four countries in the 1970s, you’d have a very different opinion; back then, Venezuela was so rich it was called Saudi Venezuela, and people in North Korea earned more than their southern neighbors; moreover, South Korea and Chile were ruled by military dictatorships.

Did you know that?

And do you know that nine out of the ten fastest growing economies today are not exactly democratic? Still thinking that only democracy leads to economic growth?

How to fight it: Recognize that a single perspective can limit your imagination; test your ideas and beware of simple solutions: the world is just too complicated; travel to test your ideas; get a toolbox, not a hammer.

The Blame Instinct

Explanation: Once you identify a bad guy, you look no further than him; suddenly, he’s the one who should be blamed for everything.

Examples: Pharmaceutical companies often don’t research solutions to some ailments which only affect the most impoverished populations (malaria, sleeping sickness, and other neglected tropical diseases). So, blame it on the CEOs! However, does the CEO decide for himself or follows the lead of the board members? What about the shareholders?

Another example: Trump. It’s easy to blame him for all the problems in America, but it’s difficult to ignore the fact that many of them were there before he came to power.

How to fight it: Look for causes, not villains: there are usually no Darth Vaders in the world, but system malfunctions; the opposite is true as well: sometimes the system works well; so, resist pinpointing scapegoats or heroes.

The Urgency Instinct

Explanation: This is the instinct which tells you that if you don’t act now, tomorrow will be too late; activists and rhetoricians cultivate it so as to be heard; but resist the temptation to believe them.

Examples: Urgency usually comes with a clear-cut solution; take a breath before rushing into anything; for example, the refugee problem (and the maltreatment of people just like you) is a real one, but don’t point your fingers before understanding its complexity.

How to fight it: Recognize when a decision feels urgent: it rarely is; take small steps and insist on the data; beware of fortune-tellers, because every single prediction about the future is uncertain; also, beware of drastic actions

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“Factfulness Quotes”

There’s no room for facts when our minds are occupied by fear. Click To Tweet

Forming your worldview by relying on the media would be like forming your view about me by looking only at a picture of my foot. Click To Tweet

The world cannot be understood without numbers. But the world cannot be understood with numbers alone. Click To Tweet

Every group of people I ask thinks the world is more frightening, more violent, and more hopeless—in short, more dramatic—than it really is. Click To Tweet

Here’s the paradox: the image of a dangerous world has never been broadcast more effectively than it is now, while the world has never been less violent and more safe. Click To Tweet

Our Critical Review

According to Bill Gates, Factfulness is “one of the most important books… an indispensable guide to thinking clearly about the world.”

His wife Melinda shares the same opinion: “Hans Rosling,” she writes, “tells the story of ‘the secret silent miracle of human progress’ as only he can. But Factfulness does much more than that. It also explains why progress is so often secret and silent and teaches readers how to see it clearly.”

“A hopeful book about the potential for human progress when we work off facts rather than our inherent biases” (Barack Obama), Factfulness is an eye-opening account of what the world is and how we’ve made it that way.

And features numerous great pieces of advice to teach you how you can make it even better!


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Why Nations Fail PDF Summary

Why Nations Fail PDF SummaryThe Origins of Power, Prosperity and Poverty

Some countries are rich, and others are poor.


Daron Acemoglu and James A. Robinson try to give a definite answer to these questions in their ultra-popular and heavily discussed book:

Why Nations Fail.

Who Should Read “Why Nations Fail”? And Why?

Why Nations Fail, writes Jared Diamond, “should be required reading for politicians and anyone concerned with economic development.”

It should also be required reading for those who want to understand why some nations are rich and others poor, as well as those who want to put an end to inequality and corruption.

About Daron Acemoglu and James A. Robinson

Daron AcemogluDaron Acemoglu is a Turkish-born American economist and professor of economics at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology for the past two and a half decades.

After completing his Ph.D. at the London School of Economics in 1992, Acemoglu embarked on a very successful career which made him one of the most recognizable economists of the 21st century.

In fact, a 2011 survey of American economists ranked him the third most favorite living economist under the age of 60 (just behind Paul Krugman and Greg Mankiw), and a 2015 study named him the most cited economist of the past decade.

James A. RobinsonJames A. Robinson is a British economist and political scientist with a Ph.D. from Yale University; he has worked as a professor of economics at numerous prestigious institutions, currently at the Harris School of Public Policy, University of Chicago.

A close collaborator of Acemoglu, Robinson is mostly interested in comparative political and economic development of countries in Sub-Saharan Africa and Latin America.

He has written quite a few books and studies, many of them collaborations.

Acemoglu and Robinson have written two books together: Economic Origins of Dictatorship and Democracy and Why Nations Fail.

“Why Nations Fail PDF Summary”

In Why Nations Fail, Daron Acemoglu and James A. Robinson set before themselves a very ambitious task: to pinpoint, once and for all, the real reasons why some countries are rich and prosperous, and why others are poor and doomed to fail all over again.

And in fifteen chapters, they lay out a thought-provoking theory which, if not something more, has incited a lively discussion among the most famous economists, intellectuals, and political thinkers of the XXI century.

Let’s see what all the fuss is about.

The Existing Explanations

It isn’t difficult to guess that Why Nations Fail isn’t the first book to try to get to the bottom of the “rich vs. poor countries” quandary.

And it is even easier to suppose that before presenting their theory, Acemoglu and Robinson try to point to the faults of other people’s explanations of the problem.

They group them into several categories, which we’ll further group into three.

Geography and Climate

According to the geography hypothesis most eloquently demonstrated by Jared Diamond in Guns, Germs, and Steel, some nations were merely lucky enough to form countries on locations blessed with a pleasant climate.

There’s a reason why the poorest countries in the world are located in tropical regions, and why the wealthiest can be found in cooler climatic zones.

Simply put, diseases are more likely to develop in the tropical zones of central Africa and America, and, thus, it is only natural to expect from a Zambian to be far less productive than a Norwegian.

However, ask Acemoglu and Robinson, then why are neighboring countries such as North Korea and South Korea so different?

Moreover, why is Singapore so prosperous, even though it is located in the tropical climate zone.

Culture and Religion

According to the culture hypothesis, some people are simply more inclined to work than others, because of their cultural and religious heritage.

Most of the developed countries, for example, went through the Protestant Reformation.

And, as any Protestant knows, work is a religious duty, and everyone should embrace it; so, it’s only natural to expect that a country with a Protestant past should be far more prosperous than one with, say Confucian values.

Because the latter thinks that humanity, loyalty, and honesty is much more important than work and success; and, because economics is, well, to quote Thomas Carlyle once again, a dismal science.

However, this once again fails to explain why North Korea is one of the poorest countries in the world, and South Korea one of the most developed ones.


According to the final group of explanations, the ignorance hypothesis, North Korea is less developed than South Korea because of the ignorance of the ruling elites.

In other words, the people who ruled North Korea were incompetent, and instead of solving problems, they merely created more; on the contrary, those who ruled South Korea understood the root of the problems and tried to solve them.

This does explain some things, but it doesn’t do well in the case of others.

A few case studies provided by Acemoglu and Robinson – such as, for example, Ghana – show that it is not the ignorance of political leaders which causes the economic decline of countries, but it is, on the contrary, their very shrewd understanding that this decline also leads to their personal economic evolution.

And that’s basically the main point of Acemoglu and Robinson’s study.

Rich countries are founded around inclusive and uncorrupted economic and political institutions; poor countries, on the other hand, suffer because of extractive institutions.

Let’s analyze both of them in detail.

Inclusive Institutions

In essence, inclusive – or integrative – institutions are those which allow large groups of people to have a say in political and economic decision-making.

Inclusive institutions give individual members of a society access to high-quality education and allow them to freely choose the profession they like.

They also incentivize them to be creative and challenge the status quo.

And this is especially important because it provides a relatively fair and level playing ground in which the talented know that they can benefit by providing benefit to the other people.

Bill Gates and Jeff Bezos became the wealthiest people in the world because their products made the lives of many people easier; however, Carlos Jesus Slim in Mexico earned his money by exploiting the monopoly in landline telephony.

The extractive institutions in Mexico allowed him to prosper and become rich without providing his countrymen additional value; integrative institutions would almost never allow this.

And how do inclusive institutions come about?

Well, interestingly enough, in many cases, merely by accident.

Consider the example of the Glorious Revolution of 1688 in England; in less than a century, this revolution would lead to the Industrial Revolution which would eventually change the world in ways nothing before ever did, practically marking the beginning of the “rich vs. poor” debate, as argued in A Farewell to Alms.

And it all started because of the plague.

The plague, you see, had led to the deaths of so many people, that, the ones who survived had to work the jobs of five and still received the paycheck for one.

So, they rebelled, and the attempt to meet their demands eventually led to the establishment of economic institutions which guaranteed the protection of private property and, with it, introduced actual free market policies.

The rest is history.

Extractive Institutions

Extractive institutions are – you’ve guessed it – the very opposite of inclusive institutions.

Acemoglu and Robinson call them extractive because they believe that the thing which defines these institutions is their inclination to extract wealth from those who are not part of them.

So, in countries ruled by extractive institutions, there are always two classes, with the first one (the elite) always in a position to repress the latter one.

The only way for those who are not in power to prosper in a country governed by extractive institutions is to join the vicious circle, i.e., to become part of the elite and prevent others from doing it.

Extractive institutions disincentivize people from taking part in the political and economic processes of a country; the reason for this is simple: they want to keep the status quo.

Now, don’t get Acemoglu and Robinson wrong: they firmly believe that in addition to inclusive institutions, centralized political power is a must if you want to create a wealthy and prosperous country.

However, there’s a limit to how centralized it should be since the economic processes are too complicated for one to be able to predict the results.

For example, in the time of Stalin, the centrally planned economy of the USSR decided to reward workers with bonuses as high as a third of their paycheck for exceeding the assigned quotas.

This did the trick for a while, and USSR became the second largest economy of the world; however, in retrospect, it also disincentivized these workers to think outside the box, which prevented the process of creative destruction (Schumpeter).

But, then again, extractive institutions fear innovation and creative destruction, since these forces usually lead to them losing their power.

So, they stifle them, and thus, cause the failure of their countries.

The Curious Case of China

Now, Acemoglu and Robinson are capable of explaining many things through their framework, but, even at first glance, China is a curious case.

Even though it is still an authoritarian country, China’s economy is growing at such a rapid pace that many have started wondering if we’re living the last years of American dominance.

So how did China succeed to become the second largest economy of the world even though still a communist country ruled by extractive institutions?

Well, according to Acemoglu and Robinson, the main reasons for this are the inclusive policies advocated by Deng Xiaoping, whose economic reforms opened China’s economy to the world and, in addition, they reoriented it internally towards market-based economic programs.

However – and this is the more exciting part of Acemoglu and Robinson’s analysis – their model predicts that, unless China furthers the inclusiveness of its institutions, its growth will steeply drop over the next decade.

What we may be seeing is just another case of the 1970s Soviet Union.

Back then, the relocation of labor from the agricultural sector to the manufacturing industry worked wonders, but twenty years later, the USSR collapsed.

Something similar may happen to China as well unless the country improves its political and economic inclusiveness.

Now, that’s a bold prediction.

Key Lessons from “Why Nations Fail”

1.      The More Inclusive the Institutions, the Richer the Country
2.      Democracy Evolves Because of the Threat of Revolutions
3.      Foreign Aid Is Sometimes the Opposite

The More Inclusive the Institutions, the Richer the Country

The central thesis of Acemoglu and Robinson’s Why Nations Fail is that economic prosperity depends on the inclusiveness of the political and economic institutions of a country.

In other words, the more people make political and economic decisions, the better off a country is supposed to be.

Inclusive institutions flourish because they change. And they change because they allow people to freely choose their professions and the market to guide the country on a prosperous path through its invisible hand.

Extractive regimes, in contrast, are more interested in keeping the status quo, since it is the status quo which allows them to remain in power.

However, the status quo means no innovation or creative destruction, and this is the main reason why some nations have never – and may never – attain wealth.

One more thing, though: a powerful, centralized government is always essential, because, as the case of Somalia shows, without it, neither the free market nor anything else really works.

Libertarians would, of course, beg to differ.

Democracy Evolves Because of the Threat of Revolutions

According to Acemoglu and Robinson, the history of democracy is the history of revolutions prevented.

They think that all societies must begin as non-democratic regimes in which elites rule through extractive governments.

However, at some point, the ruled realize, to quote Marx, that they have nothing to lose but their chains, and this is when they start pondering whether revolution is the optimal escape from their doom.

Since a revolution would cost them all of their benefits, the rich act so that they lose only some of them. Namely, they propose smaller taxation rates and appropriate measures which don’t necessarily lead to revolution; in turn, this causes redistribution which helps some of the ruled ones move vertically upward.

And this works until it doesn’t anymore – when the process restarts.

Thus, democratization happens when the rich try to avoid revolution by willingly increasing monetary redistribution and making some of the poor richer.

In time, this leads to the inclusion of many, and to the transformation of extractive institutions to inclusive ones:

Inclusive economic and political institutions do not emerge by themselves. They are often the outcome of significant conflict between elites resisting economic growth and political change and those wishing to limit the economic and political power of existing elites.

Foreign Aid Is Sometimes the Opposite

Interestingly enough, the analysis above implicitly suggests that foreign aid will more often do a disservice to a country rather than helping it.

In simpler terms, if a country is ruled by extractive institutions, foreign aid will rarely reach the intended addressees and will be, in fact, used by the elites to corrupt even more people interested in defending the status quo.

An excellent example of this process is Afghanistan, a country which, despite billions of dollars in foreign aid, hasn’t prospered almost two decades after the fall of the Taliban!

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“Why Nations Fail Quotes”

Poor countries are poor because those who have power make choices that create poverty. Click To Tweet

Politics is the process by which a society chooses the rules that will govern it. Click To Tweet

The most common reason why nations fail today is because they have extractive institutions. Click To Tweet

Traditionally economics has ignored politics, but understanding politics is crucial for explaining world inequality. Click To Tweet

Economics has gained the title Queen of the Social Sciences by choosing solved political problems as its domain. Click To Tweet

Our Critical Review

Why Nations Fail is both an engaging and thought-provoking read.

As we pointed out in the “Who Should Read This Book” section, even Jared Diamond, who has found many faults with its central thesis, endorses it full heartedly.

And we share his enthusiasm!

The central thesis of the book may be a bit reductive and constraining, but it is nevertheless one which will be debated for many decades.

And what more can you ask from a book?

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21 Lessons for the 21st Century PDF Summary

21 Lessons for the 21st Century PDF SummaryFeeling unprepared for what lies ahead?

Yuval Noah Harari is here to teach you

21 Lessons for the 21st Century.

Who Should Read “21 Lessons for the 21st Century”? And Why?

If you like Harari’s previous two books, Sapiens and Homo Deus, there’s no reason not to like this one too.

You know that he is capable of offering new perspectives and fresh insights into familiar topics, and this book proves this yet again.

Whether it’s history, politics, technology or biology – Harari knows just enough to paint the larger picture, “smashing together unexpected ideas into dazzling observations.”

A great gift for big-picture thinkers.

About Yuval Noah Harari

Yuval Noah HarariYuval Noah Harari is an Israeli historian, specializing in macro-historical processes and the history of war; he is a professor of history at the Hebrew University of Jerusalem, and the author of three bestsellers.

Harari’s first three books were published in relative obscurity though received acclaim among war historians: Renaissance Military Memoirs: War, History and Identity, 1450–1600, Special Operations in the Age of Chivalry, 1100–1550, and The Ultimate Experience: Battlefield Revelations and the Making of Modern War Culture, 1450–2000.

Influenced by Jared Diamond’s Guns, Germs, and Steel, and published in 2014, Harari’s fourth book, Sapiens, a sketch of the history of humankind, made him an international intellectual superstar; Homo Deus was written as a sequel to Sapiens, and 21 Lessons for the 21st Century revisits some of the ideas analyzed in these two books.

Find out more at https://www.ynharari.com/.

“21 Lessons for the 21st Century PDF Summary”

21 Lessons for the 21st Century is, as suggested by its very title and described in a Guardian review, “a loose collection of themed essays, many of which build on articles for the New York Times, Bloomberg and elsewhere.”

Harari has chosen to group these into five parts, each of which includes a few (three, four or five) essays on different topics.

Part I: The Technological Challenge

The first part of Harari’s book consists of four chapters, covering the topics of disillusionment, work, liberty, and equality.

The gist of it is stated in the subtitle of the main chapter:

Humankind is losing faith in the liberal story that dominated global politics in recent decades, exactly when the merger of biotech and infotech confronts us with the biggest challenges humankind has ever encountered.

And the first four lessons are:

#1. The end of history has been postponed
#2. When you grow up, you might not have a job
#3. Big Data is watching you
#4. Those who own the data own the future

Harari is interested here into how and to what extent computer technology is disrupting almost every single sphere of our existence.

His main point is that up to recently, we used computers and robots to automatize some mechanical processes. And that was not bad at all.

However, we’re at a stage when automating cognitive processes is not anymore just a possibility, but also an inevitable part of the future.

Modern neuroscience has all but confirmed what we’ve feared for quite some time – namely, that even our brains maybe just machines. Exceptionally complex, but machines nevertheless.

And if that is the case, not much time will pass before we build a God-Brain, a supercomputer which will know much more than us.

In that world, human intuition will have no value whatsoever, and all important decisions will be made by AI.

Don’t believe us?

Just remember that back in the 1990s, nobody believed that computers will ever beat a human at chess. Nowadays, no chess player is capable of beating a computer. In fact, now computers are teaching humans to play chess.

So, prepare for a world ruled by AI.

Harari’s serious.

Part II: The Political Challenge

The second part of Harari’s book deals with the political climate of the 21st century, exploring the nature of present-day communities, civilizations, nationalism, religion, and immigration.

Once again, the main lesson is chilling:

The merger of infotech and biotech threatens the core modern values of liberty and equality. Any solution to the technological challenge has to involve global cooperation. But nationalism, religion and culture divide humankind into hostile camps and make it very difficult to cooperate on a global level.

The subtitles of the five essays which comprise this chapter say a lot by themselves.

#5. Humans have bodies
#6. There is just one civilization in the world
#7. Global problems need global answers
#8. God now serves the nation
#9. Some cultures might be better than others

To understand Harari’s analyses and opinions from this very important section of the book, you must first go back to Samuel Huntington and his “clash of civilizations” thesis, according to which, humankind “has always been divided into diverse civilizations whose members view the world in irreconcilable ways.”

In other words, the Western liberals and the Eastern Muslims are as different from each other as wolves and bears. “These incompatible world views make conflicts between civilizations inevitable… and only the fittest have survived to tell the tale.”

The very existence of such cross-cultural creations such as the European Union is evidence enough that this thesis is misleading. However, the current state of affairs unravels the dualistic existence of the modern world.

On one side, the great issues of this century – such as, for example, climate change and nuclear weapons – require a global community; on the other, immigration and nationalism form the basis of the defense mechanism of those threatened by globalization.

Is there a way out?

Read ahead!

Part III: Despair and Hope

The five essays which comprise the third part of Harari’s book try to answer some of the questions posited in the first two parts of 21 Lessons for the 21st Century.

Aptly titled, the “Despair and Hope” chapter treats – in five essays – subjects such as terrorism, war, humility, god, and secularism, and ultimately boils down to this:

Though the challenges are unprecedented, and though the disagreements are intense, humankind can rise to the occasion if we keep our fears under control and be a bit more humble about our views.

#10. Don’t panic
#11. Never underestimate human stupidity
#12. You are not the center of the world
#13. Don’t take the name of God in vain
#14. Acknowledge your shadow

As far as Harari is concerned, the best way a human being can keep its fears under control and be a bit more humble about his or her views is secularism, something which “can provide us with all the values we need.”

Unlike dogmatic stories – political or religious – secularism presupposes doubt and critical mindset, as well as a coherent set of values, such as equality, compassion, freedom, truth, courage, and responsibility.

It also allows us to make these kinds of analyses.

During the past 17 years – meaning: since the 9/11 attacks – no more than 50 people are killed by terrorists in the European Union on a yearly basis. During that same period, 80,000 Europeans have died in traffic accidents.

So why are we talking so much about terrorism?

Simply put, because we’re stupid and we’re playing the game terrorists want us to play.

They are proverbially nothing more than flies on the bulls in a china shop. Unable to cause much damage themselves, they merely create a buzz so that the bulls cause it in their stead.

Part IV: Truth

If you ask us, this fourth part may be the most important one of the whole book, encompassing four enlightening essays on ignorance, justice, post-truth and science fiction.

The main lesson:

If you feel overwhelmed and confused by the global predicament, you are on the right track. Global processes have become too complicated for any single person to understand. How then can you know the truth about the world, and avoid falling victim to propaganda and misinformation?

The four sub-lessons:

#15. You know less than you think
#16. Our sense of justice might be out of date
#17. Some fake news lasts forever
#18. The future is not what you see in the movies

Harari’s starting point is one he has already analyzed in detail in Sapiens. Namely, that much of what we do and have accomplished is the result of our capacity to believe in fictions.

Comparing religion to what Donald Trump named “fake news,” Harari notes sarcastically that, “when a thousand people believe some made-up story for one month, that’s fake news. When a billion people believe it for a thousand years, that’s a religion, and we are admonished not to call it fake news in order not to hurt the feelings of the faithful (or incur their wrath).”

The point is simple: it is difficult nowadays to distinguish between facts and fiction, because every single aspect of our existence is so intricate and complex that not many people are able to understand it.

Embracing our ignorance is the only road towards salvation.

Because you’re helping nobody if you are talking about the war in Ukraine or climate change even though you are not that interested into politics and don’t know a single thing about meteorology.

Part V: Resilience

The fifth part of Harari’s book is the shortest one, comprising only three essays on education, meaning, and meditation.

And instead of a lesson, it is framed by a very thought-provoking question:

How do you live in an age of bewilderment, when the old stories have collapsed, and no new story has yet emerged to replace them?

The final three lessons are also pretty short:

#19. Change is the only constant
#20. Life is not a story
#21. Just observe

What lies beneath them is an exploration of Harari’s personal understanding of how should one act in this age of bewilderment.

“Having criticized so many stories, religions and ideologies,” he writes, “it is only fair that I put myself in the firing line too, and explain how somebody so skeptical can still manage to wake up cheerful in the morning.”

Completely aware of the fact that what works for him might not work for everybody, Harari shares his love of meditation and advocates it as an antidote to the chaotic world of today.

In his eyes, there are no more over-arching stories to guide us through our day, but there have always been – and always will be – feelings that define our experience.

And they stream through us.

And it’s about time that we get to know them.

Our systems of education should mirror this thirst for self-discovery and teach us to critically analyze the world instead of merely teaching us to memorize facts and trivial data.

The man of the future is the Skeptic, an always curious Socrates aware of his ignorance and ready to get to the bottom of it.

Key Lessons from “21 Lessons for the 21st Century”

1.      The World Is Changing Faster Than Ever, and We’re Failing to Acknowledge This
2.      The Age of Bewilderment: Do We Have a Story?
3.      The 22nd Lesson: Be a Socrates

The World Is Changing Faster Than Ever, and We’re Failing to Acknowledge This

21 Lessons for the 21st Century tries to make sense of many political, social, and technological changes humankind faces at the moment.

In the opinion of Harari, many of these changes are as inevitable as death and taxes, and yet very few people acknowledge that they are happening.

For example, automation all but guarantees a very recent future in which many people will be left without jobs, and, for some reason, neither Trump nor Hillary Clinton discussed this problem during the 2016 presidential campaign.

What they chose to talk about most was, say, terrorism, even though, essentially, this is basically unimportant topic and is, in fact, what terrorists want to achieve.

They are much more marginal than hundreds of groups of people, and yet, fighting against terrorism is the focus of American – nay, world – foreign policy ever since September 11.

In the meantime, Facebook has gathered data of just about everybody on the planet, automated cars are on the verge of eliminating the need of human drivers altogether, and religion has stopped being an important part of the lives of most Europeans.

So why are we still talking about free will, open jobs, and God?

The Age of Bewilderment: Do We Have a Story?

As stated above, the subtitle of the fifth part of Harari’s book posits a very important question: “How do you live in an age of bewilderment, when the old stories have collapsed, and no new story has yet emerged to replace them?”

As Harari explained all too well in Sapiens, our species exists precisely because of these stories, fiction being “among the most effective tools in humanity’s toolkit.”

Everything – from money to religion to laws – is, in its essence, a big lie; but since these lies come with a story, and we are storytelling chimpanzees by our very nature, we’ve chosen to believe them.

And we’ve made a good choice, since this has helped us create communities and civilization itself.

However, at present, we have a fairly serious problem: a large number of people are uninterested in believing these stories.

Considering the fact that some of them – be that fascism or communism, nationalism or almost every single religion – have wreaked havoc on the world for millennia, this, according to Harari, may not be such a bad thing after all.

“So,” he notes something Jordan Peterson would probably sign as well, “if you want to know the truth about the universe, about the meaning of life, and about your own identity, the best place to start is by observing suffering and exploring what it is.”

“The answer is not a story,” he adds.

The 22nd Lesson: Be a Socrates

So, what is it?

Of course, Harari’s book doesn’t include a 22nd lesson; however, inspired by the Guardian review quoted at the very beginning of our summary, we felt compelled to add it, meshing a few of Harari’s insights into one very actionable advice.

And we feel that it’s good if we start explaining Harari’s point by quoting this passage from the 18th chapter of the book:

Unlike the creators of The Matrix and The Truman Show, Huxley doubted the possibility of escape, because he questioned whether there was anybody to make the escape.
Since your brain and your ‘self’ are part of the matrix, to escape the matrix you must escape your self. That, however, is a possibility worth exploring. Escaping the narrow definition of self might well become a necessary survival skill in the twenty-first century.

In other words, we are our brains and it is impossible for us to escape them.

So, in order to not be brainwashed, doubt everything!

Admit your ignorance before yourself and be skeptical.

Listen to each and every story – coming from many different people – and try to find cracks as often as you can.

Understand your mind before the algorithms of tomorrow start making your mind up for you.

Contemplate, reflect, ruminate, muse, meditate.

You know, be a Socrates.

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“21 Lessons for the 21st Century Quotes”

In a world deluged by irrelevant information, clarity is power. Click To Tweet

Questions you cannot answer are usually far better for you than answers you cannot question. Click To Tweet

Morality doesn’t mean ‘following divine commands’. It means ‘reducing suffering’. Hence in order to act morally, you don’t need to believe in any myth or story. You just need to develop a deep appreciation of suffering. Click To Tweet

Silence isn’t neutrality; it is supporting the status-quo. Click To Tweet

Humans think in stories rather than in facts, numbers, or equations, and the simpler the story, the better. Click To Tweet

Our Critical Review

If we are perfectly honest, Harari is better at detecting the problems humankind is facing at the moment than offering appropriate solutions, so the title of his newest book may be a bit misleading.

In addition, 21 Lessons for the 21st Century recycles many of his past ideas, so don’t expect anything revolutionary here.

Even so, we think that Harari’s book feels like a breath of fresh air in an intellectual world where many people seem to know more than they do and many others predict the apocalypse without even understanding that this is the same as shouting fire in a crowdy theatre.

At least he’s also saying “don’t panic.”

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Liars, Leakers, and Liberals PDF Summary

Liars, Leakers, and Liberals PDF SummaryThe Case Against the Anti-Trump Conspiracy

We’ve summarized quite a few Anti-Trump books on our site in the past.

And, as the Romans knew, it’s only fair that we hear the other side of the argument as well.

And, if you know her, you know that not many people are as staunchly pro-Trump as Judge Jeanine Pirro.

In fact, even if you don’t know who Judge Jeanine is, the title of her book is a giveaway:

Liars, Leakers, and Liberals.

Who Should Read “Liars, Leakers, and Liberals”? And Why?

If you are a Republican who’s fed up with the anti-Trump stories related to you by the mainstream media, then Liars, Leakers, and Liberals is the book for you.

However, if you’re like us and you don’t want to live in the filter bubble, this book should be even more interesting to you exactly because you are a liberal who thinks that the liberal consensus on Trump reflects the truth of the matter.

Read it not because you agree with it, but precisely because you don’t; you probably dislike radical things and people, and the Truth is rarely radical.

So, get a new, fresher perspective on the Trump presidency.

If it fails to change your opinions, then you’ll not only know that you’ve been right all the time, but you’ll also have prepared contra-arguments for all the things Republicans and Trumpists will try to throw at you in the future.

If, however, it changes at least some of them, you’ll be richer for a new, more complete perspective on how the world actually rolls.

In other words, it’s a win-win.

About Jeanine Pirro

Jeanine PirroJeanine Pirro – better known as Judge Jeanine – is a former American judge, prosecutor, and Republican politician, best known as a TV personality and bestselling author.

In 1991, Pirro became the first female judge elected to the Westchester County Court; afterward, she became the first female District Attorney of the same county.

During her time as a District Attorney, she gained prominence not only for her involvement in numerous cases of domestic abuse but also for her regular TV appearances commenting on widely publicized events such as the O.J. Simpson murder trial.

In 2006, Pirro briefly sought the Republican nomination in an attempt to run against Hillary Clinton but dropped out of the race to run for Attorney General of New York. She lost the New York Attorney general election to Andrew Cuomo.

Jeanine Pirro hosted the Judge Jeanine Pirro show on the CW between May 2008 and September 2011; since then she hosts Fox News Channel’s Justice with Judge Jeanine.

“Liars, Leakers, and Liberals PDF Summary”

Liars, Leakers, and Liberals delves into the relationship between Donald Trump, the so-called Fake News media and the supposed deep state which actually governs the United States from behind the scene.

As expected, Judge Jeanine’s position is pretty clear: the media, Hollywood, FBI, and so on and so forth – they all lie about Trump so as to protect the interests of the elite and cover up the existence of this deep state.

Or, in her words:

Yes, Donald Trump arrived just in time, when our nation needed him most, when we needed to be protected and inspired. To be sure, Trump was not your typical, politically correct candidate.
Unlike the two-faced parasites in Washington, he really wanted to make America great again. They tagged him with every negative characterization they could. They called him a fascist, a racist, and twisted everything he said. Why? Because he was a threat to the greedy, corrupt Washington insiders who had captured our government.
And he did what other candidates wouldn’t dream of. In addition to the Establishment, he took on the media. They said it was suicide. They were wrong.

Let’s skim through her arguments.

Trump and the Fake News Media

According to Judge Jeanine, media wasn’t always as hostile to Trump as it has been ever since his nomination for Presidency.

In fact, back in the days of The Art of the Deal, The Apprentice, and Miss USA, he was a household name both revered and criticized by the media.

However, only the latter is true for the past few years, and the statistics prove it.

Namely, a Pew Research Center study discovered that only 28 percent of all stories about George W. Bush were negative, only 20 percent of those about Obama could be described in the same manner, and a whopping 62 percent of what the media says about Trump is a critique of him or his politics!


Because lies about Trump sell; according to Judge Jeanine, this phenomenon even has a name in some circles: the Trump Bump.

So, how does Trump deal with this?

“With just one phrase,” writes Judge Jeanine, “the president has deflected and defeated billions of negative words written about him.”

And you already know the phrase:

Fake News!

Hell, Trump even instituted the Fake News Awards, which, to quote Judge Jeanine, “raised exposure of dishonest media to an art form.”

Although, to be fair to Trump, one of the winners of this award, Brian Ross, has been involved in many controversies of this kind for the past two decades.

To be fair to the Fake News media, though, they have suspended him quite a few times on account of his unsourced reporting.

The Hypocrisy of Hollywood

“Folks,” writes Judge Jeanine, “Hollywood’s been steeped in hypocrisy for decades. As the curtain goes up on the casting couch, the town that glorifies violence, murder, and rape is the same town where the centuries-old practice of pressuring women to trade sex for a job is kept quiet.”

Of course, what Pirro is referring to is the Harvey Weinstein affair.

Weinstein, a liberal Democrat who has given almost a $1,000,000 in donations to Barack Obama, was accused by numerous women of rape, abuse, and sexual assaults in October 2017.

However, it took the Obamas quite some time to react to this story, and Hillary Clinton was nowhere to be found for at least five days.

At the same time, everybody seems to be shouting against Trump for similar accusations, even though not one of them has been documented as well as those brought out against Weinstein.

Now, why is that?

Simply put, because liberals are “fans of Hollywood’s hypocrisy.” For example, writes Judge Jeanine, after Hillary lost the Presidency, Michelle Obama commented that “any woman who voted against Hillary Clinton voted against their own voice.”

“Michelle,” she asks, “does that mean you listened to your voice and voted for Hillary and against your husband when Hillary ran against him in the primary? Where was your voice on the day your daughter got a job with Harvey?”

Moreover, where was Hillary’s or the media’s voice when Bill Clinton was accused of similar charges.

On a side note, don’t listen to the opinions of Hollywood actors about anything, says Judge Jeanine.

They don’t matter one beat since “these are people with a bloated sense of self-worth, little accountability, and practically no original thought. Without a Hollywood scriptwriter, most of them couldn’t talk their way out of a telemarketing call.”

Illegal Immigrants

This, of course, is the burning issue.

Should illegal immigrants be allowed in the United States, and are Trump and the American people for or against immigration?

Back in 2015, when Trump said that illegal immigrants are rapists, bringing drugs and crime to the USA, many liberal media predicted that this statement should spell the end of Trump.

Strangely enough, not only it didn’t, but it brought him the presidency.


Because most Americans share this opinion.

Moreover, because Trump is not against immigrants – illegal or otherwise – but against sanctuary cities, which don’t cooperate with the government on the subject of immigration:

The president was not talking about shaking down every suspected illegal immigrant household in the United States with jackbooted stormtroopers demanding ‘Papers, please!’
He was talking about finding illegal immigrants who had committed violent crimes including drug crimes. The government is supposed to arrest people suspected of committing those crimes, whether they are here legally or not!

After all, don’t forget that Trump’s wife is “an immigrant who speaks with an accent” and that his Trump Tower employees describe him as a great employer.

We’re talking about two different subjects here, and it’s time that the media acknowledges this!

Key Lessons from “Liars, Leakers, and Liberals”

1.      The Press Is Lying About Trump, and Hollywood Is Full of Hypocrites
2.      The Washington Divide: Trump vs. the Swamp
3.      Donald Trump Has Already Achieved More Than Many Presidents Before Him

The Press Is Lying About Trump, and Hollywood Is Full of Hypocrites

According to a study, two-thirds of the stories about Trump in the media are negative, as opposed to no more than a third in the case of Obama or even George W. Bush.

The reason is simple: lying about Trump sells, getting The Times 132,000 new subscribers in the first month of Trump’s time in office!

Trump countered the lies by instituting the Fake News Awards, and this worked.

“The genius of Donald Trump,” writes Judge Jeanine, “was recognizing that Americans instinctively felt that the press was lying. He was the one who put the laser focus on the press, and their lack of accountability and America came along with him.”

However, the press is not Trump’s only enemy.

Hollywood’s hypocrisy is another.

There are many actors all around us, says Judge Jeanine, but the actual actors are the worst. Their opinions shouldn’t matter at all, because they are capable of doing nothing else but getting a shot right after twenty takes.

Whether it is Robert DeNiro, Sarah Silverman, or Whoopi Goldberg, these are all people who shouldn’t be dealing with politics in the first place.

Not only they because they aren’t qualified to, but also because these are the same people who covered up the story of Harvey Weinstein’s sexual abuse for decades.

The Washington Divide: Trump vs. the Swamp

Everybody’s talking about divisions during the past few years, but nobody is talking about the important one.

In the opinion of Judge Jeanine, it’s not Republicans vs. Democrats in Washington or anywhere else; it’s Trump vs. the Swamp.

Namely, Washington is full of RINOs – i.e., Republicans in Name Only – who instead of getting behind Trump, go against him so as to further their own agenda.

And that agenda is the same as the one Trump opposes: the agenda of liars and hypocrites who want to govern America from behind the scenes.

These people are all politically correct and seem as if personifications of justice and intellect.

However, they are ten times worse than Trump who may be not as polished talker or a thinker, but “feels the way much of America feels” and “says [exactly] what he thinks.”

And “that’s why he was elected our President.”

Donald Trump Has Already Achieved More Than Many Presidents Before Him

And, according to Judge Jeanine, he’s doing a heck of a good job already.

He’s not only a caring family man – Pirro has been a personal friend of his for many years – but he’s also a decent guy who understands the American people, doing everything he can to help them.

In fact, in merely two years, he has created three million jobs, and today there are more available jobs than people unemployed in the US; unsurprisingly, unemployment is at the lowest it has been for seventeen years.

Despite being labeled as “cuts for the rich,” Trump’s tax cuts have helped the ones most in need: a typical American family should save over $2,000 a year because of them.

In addition, Trump has been doing wonders in America’s foreign policy. Working with our allies, Trump has all but neutralized ISIS, doing what Obama should have done but never did.

He has also strengthened America’s ties with its closest ally in the Middle East (Israel) by recognizing Jerusalem as its capital, and normalized USA’s relations to many countries – even starting peace talks with North Korea!

And yet, CNN talks nothing of this, focusing instead on conspiracy theories such as the Mueller investigation which has turned up nothing so far.

Why would they do that if they actually cared about the American people?

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“Liars, Leakers, and Liberals Quotes”

The minute Donald Trump announced his presidential run, on a platform that didn’t politely acquiesce to their progressive, globalist agenda, they turned on him like a pack of feral dogs. Click To Tweet

Most Americans have no idea that less than two years after his inauguration, Donald Trump has accomplished more than most presidents accomplish in their entire presidencies. Click To Tweet

Just eighteen months into his presidency, Trump accomplished what Obama couldn’t do in two terms: provided concrete proof that African-Americans are legitimately better off under the Trump presidency. Click To Tweet

Since losing the election in the worst upset in American electoral history, Hillary Clinton has given over fifty paid speeches blaming just about everyone she can think of for the loss except, of course, herself. Click To Tweet

Obama and the Clintons sold our uranium and with it the security of our nation. Click To Tweet

Our Critical Review

Even if you didn’t know before that Judge Jeanine has written quite a few books, Liars, Leakers, and Liberals might just be a title that sounds familiar to you.

The reason?

Pirro’s heated debate with Whoopi Goldberg on The View, after which the sales of Liars, Leakers, and Liberals skyrocketed, pushing the book to the top of The New York Times bestseller list.

Does it deserve to be there?

Well, not exactly.

It is biased and full of conspiracy theories that are, to say the least, unfalsifiable. And that, as Karl Popper has taught us, may just be a sign that they bear no relation to reality.

Moreover, if you label everything everyone says against you Fake News than you’re not actually interested in a fair fight, aren’t you?

Even so, Liars, Leakers, and Liberals does have a few fair points and some truths you won’t be able to hear in the mainstream media.

So, give it a chance: you’ll lose nothing but parts of your filter bubble.


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Good and Mad PDF Summary

Good and Mad PDF SummaryThe Revolutionary Power of Women’s Anger

Wondering about the origins of the #MeToo movement?

Well, it’s time to learn something about the history of women’s anger and why that’s the place where girl power sits!

Dear ladies – and gentlemen in the all but forgotten, literal sense of that word – we present you the summary of Rebecca Traister’s Good and Mad!

Who Should Read “Good and Mad”? And Why?

Regardless of some people’s claims, in the intellectual world, it is not exactly debatable whether women have been the second sex for millennia; and whether some kind of bad form of gender inequality still exists.

So, all of you women who want to change that, this is one of the best books on the subject; and all of you men who can’t seem to understand it, please, first read all about its history in Good and Mad.

After all, nothing comes out of nothing.

Why should the #MeToo movement or feminism be any different?

About Rebecca Traister

Rebecca TraisterRebecca Traister is an American writer, mostly interested in the topics of women’s rights and politics; according to American writer Anne Lamott, she may be ”the most brilliant voice on feminism in this country.”

She debuted in 2010 with Big Girls Don’t Cry in which she attempted to understand and analyze the reinvigoration of the women’s movement in the USA due to Hillary Clinton’s 2008 political campaign.

Eight years later, she published All the Single Ladies, a book often described as “a remarkable portrait of contemporary American life and how we got here, through the lens of the unmarried American woman.”

Good and Mad, published just this year, is Traister’s third book; inspired by the #MeToo movement, it follows the cumulation of women’s anger through the past few centuries.

Find out more at http://www.rebeccatraister.com/

“Good and Mad PDF Summary”

The Beginnings of Women’s Anger

Back in 1963, Betty Friedan published The Feminine Mystique and revealed to the world a “problem that has no name.”

Namely, that the majority of women didn’t like – who would have guessed, ha? – to be measured against an archetype of a children-loving and always-smiling housewife whose sole objective was to find a good husband, and maybe shop for groceries and chauffer Boy Scouts.

That can’t be all, wrote Betty Friedan; there must be so much more to life than that.

And that’s basically how women’s anger was born, almost concurrently with the anger against racial injustice and the one against the War in Vietnam.

And this anger marked most of the 1960s and the 1970s, a period during which women successfully campaigned for the legalization of abortion and birth control, as well as for laws which made divorce easier and sexual harassment a form of discrimination against women.

And then the 1980s came, and Ronald Reagan reversed all that.

Suddenly, these women – labeled as “freaks” at the beginning – evolved to become nothing short of demons and witches.

Don’t believe us?

Just think of Glenn Close in Fatal Attraction.

Which is why women’s anger subsided during the 1990s. No woman wanted to be associated with the she-devils of the 1970s. You know the ones who’d burn their bras, shout in your face, and wouldn’t back down.

Instead, anger made place for humor; a great thing, of course, but even greater for the men. After all, it is far easier to deal with someone funny than with someone angry.

You can just ignore the first one; there’s no way you can ignore the second one.

Angry Yet Again

In a word, not much was going on in the world of feminism between the 1970s and today.

There were few sparks here and there – Anita Hill’s accusation against Clarence Thomas for sexual harassment, Hillary Clinton’s 2008 presidential campaign – but these were all just short-lived and ignorable.

And then Clinton’s second presidential campaign came, and, just as the women of America started preparing for a woman president, the shock arrived: Donald Trump won.

And, once again, women’s anger erupted!

On January 21, 2017, just a day after the inauguration of Donald Trump, the Women’s March happened; its goal: to “send a bold message to our new administration on their first day in office, and to the world that women’s rights are human rights.”

And a bold message it did send: more than 4 million people participated in the Women’s March, making it the most massive single-day protest in US history!

Of course, that was only one of the events through which women’s anger found a way out during the past two years.

The other – still going on – was the #MeToo movement, which spread virally soon after sexual abuse allegations were made against Harvey Weinstein.

What the cases of Trump and Weinstein revealed to the women of the world was something they became aware of in the 1970s: no matter how much they try, chances are they will always be the second sex.

Trump, for example, is both a racist and a misogynist, and yet he won a presidential race against a woman. And as the #MeToo movement revealed, no matter how high on the Hollywood success ladder you’ve climbed, powerful men can still use and abuse you.

What does that leave for the rest of the women out there?

The Sexist Nature of Anger


That’s the answer to the question posited in the last sentence of the previous paragraph.

Most women are utterly defenseless against the powerful and unchanging structure of our patriarchal society; unfortunately, only women can understand the full weight of this sentence. But let us try and make it a bit clearer for you.

Think of an angry young man. What do you see in him? A rebel, a fighter for justice. Even though his face is contorted and his mouth wide open, there’s nothing especially repelling there.

Now think of an angry young woman.

Get it?

The very idea of an “angry woman” somehow seems wrong, almost oxymoronic. Angry women are witches and she-devils: they seem disagreeable to all but everybody, including their parents and partners.

Society has always frowned upon them. After all, there’s a reason why the term “hysterical” originates in the Ancient Greek word for “uterus”; men, for some reason, can’t be hysterical; women are not allowed to.

That’s why Donald Trump can call publicly Mexicans “rapists,” women “pigs” and “cows,” and rave against almost everybody and everything and still win the presidency. And that’s why Republicans were able to all but dismiss the allegations of Kamala Harris for Russian interference simply by labeling her “hysterical.”

Even if you can rationalize against it, deep inside you, you still think that women are supposed to be submissive and smiling, agreeable and beautiful; nothing less, and nothing more. Apparently, we all believe that this is in the very genes of women.

And you know why we believe that?

Because it has suited the people in power for millennia; and because it still does.

After all, they are men.

Stifling Women’s Anger

And please note: we’re not saying that men are consciously doing this.

“On some level,” writes Traister, “if not intellectual then animal, there has always been an understanding of the power of women’s anger: that as an oppressed majority in the United States, women have long had within them the potential to rise up in fury, to take over a country in which they’ve never really been offered their fair or representative stake.”

And this is perhaps the reason why women’s anger is so broadly denigrated, and so often represented as ugly, alienating, and irrational. Because, in the opposite case, it is capable of bringing down the current order.

Just think of Jordan Peterson’s (of course, borrowed from Jung, Taoism, and the spheres of mythological thinking) often-quoted dualistic idea that “Order is the white, masculine serpent; Chaos, its black, feminine counterpart.”

Within this frame of reference, you can’t argue with him. However, this frame of reference is masculine. And, of course (as Beauvoir showed us more than half a century ago) the only way you can define womanhood inside it is by relation.

So, if men represent order – and they do: for starters, there are about five times more of them in US politics – then women, by definition, represent chaos. They are the ones who can do something unexpected.

Traister correctly points out:

What becomes clear, when we look to the past with an eye to the future, is that the discouragement of women’s anger – via silencing, erasure, and repression – stems from the correct understanding of those in power that in the fury of women lies the power to change the world.

Remember this.

Because this is the discussion we’re having.

Key Lessons from “Good and Mad”

1.      It’s Not the End of the Struggle for Women’s Rights… It’s Merely the Beginning
2.      Women’s Anger Is Good
3.      I’m Mad as Hell and I’m Not Going to Take This Anymore!

It’s Not the End of the Struggle for Women’s Rights… It’s Merely the Beginning

2017 was a revolutionary year in terms of women’s struggle for their rights.

It was marked by two momentous events: the Women’s March (the largest single-day protest in U.S. history) and the #MeToo movement.

However, as Rebecca Traister shows, in retrospect, what these women are fighting for are, more or less, the same things the women of the 1960s and the 1970s had all but won.

Merely a second of inattention may lead to another repeat of Reagan’s masculine 1980s.

So, it’s not the end of the struggle – it’s merely the beginning

Women’s Anger Is Good

Don’t let anybody fool you: as far as revolutions are concerned, anger is a prerequisite.

After all, it’s not like the American Revolution started because the Founding Fathers waited for the Englishmen to give them freedom and rights.

They tried the good way, and when that failed, anger festered to the point when the spilling of the tea was the only possible outcome.

“I confess that I am now suspicious of nearly every attempt to code anger as unhealthy, no matter how well-meaning or persuasive the source,” writes Traister.

And then she goes on:

What is bad for women, when it comes to anger, are the messages that cause us to bottle it up, let it fester, keep it silent, feel shame, and isolation for ever having felt it or rechannel it in inappropriate directions. What is good for us is opening our mouths and letting it out, permitting ourselves to feel it and say it and think it and act on it and integrate it into our lives, just as we integrate joy and sadness and worry and optimism.

I’m Mad as Hell and I’m Not Going to Take This Anymore!

This is the central message of Good and Mad.

And we will quote the paragraph stating it best in its entirety:

What you are angry about now – injustice – will still exist, even if you yourself are not experiencing it, or are tempted to stop thinking about how you are experience it, and how you contribute to it. Others are still experiencing it, still mad; some of them are mad at you. Don’t forget them; don’t write off their anger. Stay made for them. Stay mad with them. They’re right to be mad, and you’re right to be mad alongside them. Being mad is correct; being mad is American; being mad can be joyful and productive and connective. Don’t ever let them talk you out of being mad again.

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“Good and Mad Quotes”

Men literally have no idea how to even legitimately recognize or name our anger—largely because we don’t either. Click To Tweet

The Women’s March on January 21, 2017 was the biggest one-day political protest in this country’s history, and it was staged by angry women. Click To Tweet

The British feminist Laurie Penny tweeted in July 2017, ‘Most of the interesting women you know are far, far angrier than you’d imagine.’ Click To Tweet

I want to convince you that there are types of anger that are not bad. (Via Myisha Cherry) Click To Tweet

Women’s anger, publicly and loudly expressed, is all of that: unnatural, chaotic, upsetting to how power is supposed to work. Click To Tweet

Our Critical Review

“Every fifty years since the French Revolution, writes noted journalist and critic Vivian Gornick, “there’s been an uprising on behalf of women’s rights—we’re in the middle of one right now—and each time around a fresh chorus of voices is heard, making the same righteous bid for social and political equality, only with more force and more eloquence than the time before.”

“Among today’s strongest voices is the one that belongs to Rebecca Traister,” she goes on. “Deeply felt and richly researched, her new book, Good and Mad, is one of the best accounts I have read of the cumulative anger women feel, coming up against their centuries-old subordination. Read it!”

Coming from Gornick, that’s as a compelling argument as any to read Good and Mad.

Black and hip-hop feminist scholar Brittney C. Cooper (by the way, the author of Eloquent Rage) adds yet another: “Rebecca Traister has me convinced in this deftly and powerfully argued book that there will be no 21st-century revolution until women once again own the power of their rage.”

“As I read,” Cooper adds, “my blood started pumping, my fist tightened, and my spirit said, ‘hell yeah! We aren’t going down without a fight.’”

And if you are a woman, it’s your duty to not allow this.

At the moment at least, Good and Mad is an essential read.

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