Why Motivating People Doesn’t Work… and What Does PDF Summary

Why Motivating People Doesn’t Work... and What Does PDFThe New Science of Leading, Energizing, and Engaging

The good old carrot-and-stick method doesn’t work anymore?

Well, times have changed!

And there’s a new science of leading, energizing, and engaging!

Time to find out “Why Motivating People Doesn’t Work… and What Does.”

Who Should Read “Why Motivating People Doesn’t Work… and What Does”? And Why?

Traditional motivational techniques may have worked in the past, but, to expect them to work still would mean to ignore how much the world has changed over the past several decades.

In “Why Motivating People Doesn’t Work… and What Does,” Susan Fowler urges leaders and managers to move beyond outdated motivational tactics and embrace the new science of energizing.

Start-up entrepreneurs and small business owners will find plenty of advice here as well!

Susan FowlerAbout Susan Fowler

Susan Fowler is a sought-after speaker and motivational trainer, the lead developer of The Ken Blanchard Company’s Optimal Motivation program.

Throughout her career, Fowler has co-authored numerous books, including “Self Leadership and The One Minute Manager” (with Ken Blanchard and Laurie Hawkins), “Achieve Leadership Genius” (with Drea Zigarmi and Dick Lyles) as well as “Leading at a Higher Level” and “Empowerment” (both with Ken Blanchard).

In addition, Fowler also blogs regularly for SmartBrief on Leadership, the Huffington Post, and LeaderChat.

She has coached in over 30 countries.

“Why Motivating People Doesn’t Work… and What Does PDF Summary”

In a way, there are only two types of motivation.

People are motivated to do something either because they must do it or because they want to do it.

In the former case, it’s all about ambition, rewards, and goal; the motivation of the must-doers is an ego-grounded motivation.

In the latter, the point is to grow, to learn, to excel; the motivation of the want-doers is a values-based motivation.

What science has recently discovered is that the values-based motivation is the only one which actually makes sense in the long run.


Peak performers are not goal driven. Peak performers are values-based and inspired by a noble purpose.

It took science a long time to reach this conclusion.


Well, because just a few years after the Second World War, B. F. Skinner – possibly the most influential psychologist of the 20th century – did quite a few experiments with pigeons, investigating phenomena such as superstitions and motivation.

A radical behaviorist, he came to a startling conclusion: you can make a pigeon do absolutely anything if it knows that there’s a reward; in addition, you can visibly inhibit some aspects of its behavior if you punish it by holding back on the food pellets.

What did this mean in terms of motivation at the workplace?

In an idiom (which, coincidentally, dates back to around the same time when Skinner was conducting his pigeon experiments): carrots and sticks.

And for many decades, managers believed that if you reward your employees for their good work and punish them for their bad behavior, you’ll eventually carve out the perfect worker out of them.

The problem is – it doesn’t work that way.

For even when they do, rewards only work in the short term – and cause plenty of problems in the long run.

That is, when there is a lack of money in the company, and you must put an end to the reward program, the reward-oriented employees will start doing a lot less work.

In fact, Drs. Richard Ryan and Edward Deci have demonstrated all but conclusively that real long-term motivation has nothing to do with carrots and sticks – but everything with “hope and promise.”

In other words, most people are already motivated but usually in a much more abstract way than the market would want them too.

Consequently, the job of leaders and managers is practically mission impossible: they need to motivate their employees to do things which may not be aligned with the employees’ inherent motivation.

It’s almost like a Catch-22:

The motivation dilemma is that leaders are being held accountable to do something they cannot do –motivate others.

But, if people are already motivated, how motivated are they?

And is there anything you can do?

According to Susan Fowler, there are six motivational outlooks, which can be easily illustrated by examining the reaction of six different employees to a routine work meeting:

#1. Disinterested: Employee n. 1 thinks that the meeting was a waste of time.
#2. External: Employee n. 2 thinks that this (like any other) meeting was a venue for him to exercise his power and position; he now expects a reward for being there.
#3. Imposed: Employee n. 3 was under severe pressure to attend the meeting because, well, everybody did; otherwise, he wouldn’t have come.
#4. Aligned: Employee n. 4 believes that he learned one or two valuable lessons at the meeting.
#5. Integrated: Employee n. 5 loved the meeting: he/she sincerely believes in the things discussed during this meeting and would want many more meetings such as this one in the future.
#6. Inherent: Employee n. 6 loves being around people, and meetings are his thing. This one? It was (like all the others) fun and enjoyable!

Now, as is obvious at first sight, the first three motivational outlooks are suboptimal drivers which can physically drain a person. Fowler calls them “motivational junk food.”

The last three motivational outlooks are energetic: they are the “motivational health food.”

Now, someone likes his burgers and Nachos, but others prefer broccoli and spinach. And, if you have a child, you know that it is pretty difficult to motivate it to eat the latter if it likes the former.

Scientific research has discovered that the same is true with motivation as well.

The good news?

Just like children feed themselves better by themselves, employees seem more motivated when they feel that three fundamental psychological needs of theirs are satisfied:

#1. Autonomy: I’m free to choose what you can do;
#2. Relatedness: I care about other people, and they care about me as well;
#3. Competence: I am capable of doing this job – and I am capable of doing it better than many.

So, the way out of the motivation dilemma is quite counterintuitive: instead of trying to motivate your employees to do something, just discover what they are already motivated about.

And, afterward, allow them to do exactly that.

Key Lessons from “Why Motivating People Doesn’t Work… and What Does”

1.      External Motivation Undermines Internal Motivation
2.      The Internally Motivated Live Under an ARC of Freedom
3.      There Are Six Motivational Outlooks – and Only Three Are Good

External Motivation Undermines Internal Motivation

In a nutshell, there are two types of motivation: either you must do something, or you want to do something.

In the case of the former, even though mostly in the short run, external motivation works; however, in the case of the latter, it is, in fact, an impediment.


Because money and promotions motivate people only to a certain extent; everything after that is intrinsic.

The Internally Motivated Live Under an ARC of Freedom

An internally motivated person will move mountains for you and ask for nothing in return.

The reason is quite simple: the three fundamental psychological needs (autonomy, relatedness, and competence – ARC) are already satisfied in his case.

In other words, when people feel competent to do something, have complete freedom to do it the way they want to and have evidence that their work brings some good in the lives of others – then they’ll do it without any external incentives.

In fact, they may feel these as a sort of an insult:

People who experience ARC are thriving. They do not need something or someone else doing the driving.

There Are Six Motivational Outlooks – and Only Three Are Good

There are six motivational outlooks.

The disinterested, external and imposed are the junk food of motivation, while its health food is the aligned, integrated, and the inherent motivational outlook.

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“Why Motivating People Doesn’t Work… and What Does Quotes”

The motivation dilemma is that leaders are being held accountable to do something they cannot do – motivate others. Click To Tweet

Misunderstanding what motivation means leads to a misapplication of techniques to make it happen. Click To Tweet

Devoting time and effort to help people shift their motivational outlook pays off in countless ways for them, your organization and you as a leader. Click To Tweet

Leaders are so immersed in five motivation-eroding beliefs that they find it difficult to hear, see, or do something different. Click To Tweet

Motivation is a skill. People can learn to choose and create optimal motivational experiences anytime and anywhere. Click To Tweet

Our Critical Review

“Why Motivating People Doesn’t Work… and What Does” seems to borrow a lot from Daniel H. Pink’s classic “Drive.”

However, this doesn’t make Susan Fowler’s book obsolete.

Because, what it lacks in originality, it compensates in applicability.

And that is at least as important.

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Confident Digital Content PDF Summary

Confident Digital Content PDF

Master the Fundamentals of Online Video, Design, Writing and Social Media to Supercharge Your Career

Are you looking for a way to boost your career? Perhaps, you weren’t looking in the right place!

For the time being, it’s best if you test all your options and work out a compromise.

We encompass the main findings from this Trendy Book!

Who Should Read “Confident Digital Content”? And Why?

Succeeding in the digital world is proving to be a nightmare for many individuals, agencies, and companies. Due to the intense competition, doing something that stands out from the group is critical.

Confident Digital Content” is best suited for managers and digital enthusiasts who understand the benefits of producing world-class content.

Learn how to win the lion’s share of the revenues in your industry!

About Adam Waters

Adam Waters has spent more than a decade in producing digital content and learning its secrets.

“Confident Digital Content PDF Summary”

Falling to adapt to the digital era, can really put you in an awkward position. Working, creating and restricted to one/several areas because obviously its effects are integrated into every activity.  

Let’s say you are a wine importer. Who needs digitalization right? Wrong! Even if you are just starting up, an online presence can give you the edge to find new customers, build partnership and strengthen relationships. It’s no longer a “Maybe” it’s a “Must”!

The Skills Required for Getting to the Top in the Digital Content Production Wizardry

Experts in digital content creation place emphasis on finding that emotional trigger, which acts as a hook in keeping the audience engaged. Knowing how to get a bit closer is one thing, but understanding why you shouldn’t come too close is a process.

It’s advisable to have a certain amount of expertise in these aspects as well:

Writing – It comes as no surprise that digital experts should have sharp skills in activating the readers through their ability to write compellingly. They try to keep it simple and clean and avoid sentences, which can’t be misconstrued by the wider audience.

A professional tone is recommended but not mandatory – it is on a case to case basis. Pay attention to grammar, and headlines, which must not try to deceit the user into following misleading info.

Video – So, what’s the main difference between digital videos and the 60-Second Spot on television. You might want to keep your video as short and concise as possible. Nowadays, internet networks tackle all social and geographical boundaries and allow the users to enjoy their stream anyplace anytime.

Graphic design – Nothing converts better than images, and visual assets that can grab the user’s attention in a heartbeat. But, don’t forget that some colors and designs are better suited than the others.

For instance, you think it’s random that McDonalds uses Red and Yellow in their logo? The psychological effect of Red and Yellow acts as an appetite stimulant!

Layout and the full visual appearance can make a huge difference!

Photography – Taking photos has never been easier. Use your smartphone and post pictures on your Social Media profiles.  For instance, displaying them on Instagram can give you worldwide exposure, something that everyone needs.

Let’s give a brief explanation of the most commonly used rule – “rule of thirds.” According to this standard, the grid automatically generates three vertical and three horizontal lines, that split the photo into nine equally matched sections or blocks. Many professionals press this rule into service for keeping the focus fixated on the leading edges.

Audio – Digital and SEO experts sing the praises of this possibility due to the numerous benefits deriving from podcasts and other audio materials. The main advantage is manifested through the simplicity of listening audio while you are in a middle of something else.

Your smartphone has all the capabilities it requires to create a great interview experience and much more.

Reach out to the Digital communities – Is it even possible to achieve better market position without introducing yourself to the right audience? Absolutely, not! First of all, understand the needs of the people you are trying to pull and turn them into supporters.

Try to get through all the barriers that prevent you from knowing what your audience is demanding. Find the topics that make them all fired-up. Once you are done with that, take the next step by enforcing a new set of policies which would eventually help you to find the best channels for conveying the message.

Social media – Although social media is growing in popularity, every digital content producer is aware that this is the most fluctuating industry in the world. What facets worked today, may not be applicable the next morning.

Nurturing Digital Culture in the Organization

Proficient and capable leaders are sensitive when it comes to creating a digital culture that will serve as a basis for all decision-making. Here’s how to start:

Single out all digital ambassadors” – These people are your golden goose or the ones whose expertise would come in handy.

Track your progress” – Digital analytics helps you determine which of the strategies implemented is bearing fruits, and which one should be abandoned.

Key Lessons from “Confident Digital Content”

1.      Digital Content Empowerment through Advertising
2.      Dig deep until you hit the treasure
3.      The perfect Time-Frame for videos

Digital Content Empowerment through Advertising

Let’s say that your company sells lipstick for women. Would you prefer that your promotion and commercial efforts are directed towards the female audience, or to all people?

That’s the beauty of the digital world; it allows you to customize the marketing endeavors and lend you a hand in the process of presenting the offerings before the target audience.

Dig deep until you hit the treasure

Finding the right people through the right channels and offering them the right services is easier said than done.

But, social media makes it easier. Focus on the channels that may make or break your strategy.

The perfect Time-Frame for videos

A length of 20-30 seconds is definitely the undisputed winner in terms of identifying the ideal video-interval.

According to recently made discoveries, 60% of the people, turn off the sound while watching videos. So, keep that in mind as well!

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“Confident Digital Content Quotes”

If you want to develop strong digital journalism skills, understanding the tools and techniques available to tell stories quickly and clearly on digital platforms will allow you to thrive. Click To Tweet Every time you write, you must ask yourself: Is this as clear and as simple as it could be? Click To Tweet The only way you can guarantee failure in life is by never taking a risk at all. You have to experiment with new ways of telling stories or producing content. Click To Tweet Focus on what your audience is interested in and how best to tell them…stories. Click To Tweet Combining…the smartphone with social networks was revolutionary. People could broadcast to the world from wherever they were. Click To Tweet

Our Critical Review

Not investing your time and energy in building the perfect digital content is a one-way ticket to disaster.

Adam Waters vouch for every method and technique presented in this book. If you need our advice, then you have the green light to pursue your digital career!

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A Higher Loyalty PDF Summary

A Higher Loyalty PDFTruth, Lies, and Leadership

After the Hillary Clinton email controversy, James Comey, then Director of FBI, became a household name in most American homes.

Some celebrated him as a hero; others reviled him as a villain.

In the view of everybody, he was the man who won Trump his presidency.

On May 9, 2017, that very same Trump dismissed Comey from his position.

Which is why “A Higher Loyalty,” James Comey’s part memoir, part book-length discussion of ethics and leadership, was so eagerly awaited.

Now, we have the summary!

Who Should Read “A Higher Loyalty”? And Why?

We’ve already provided you with a couple of summaries of books which offer an inspecting behind-the-scenes look at Washington’s inner workings, most recently John McCain’s “The Restless Wave” and Ben Rhodes’ “The World as It Is.”

However, “A Higher Loyalty” is a bit different than all of them, since it comes from a life-long Republican appointed Director of FBI by a Democrat and fired from the position by another Republican – the very same – most people would say – he had indirectly helped to claim the presidency.

So, this makes “A Higher Loyalty” an even more appealing read and everyone eager to find out more about the US 2016 Presidential Race and everything after shouldn’t miss this one for the world.

James ComeyAbout James Comey

James Comey is an American lawyer and former Director of the FBI.

A registered Republican, he was appointed to the position by Barack Obama in 2013, four years before being dismissed by President Donald Trump.

In the meantime, James Comey was responsible for opening an investigation into Hillary Clinton’s use of a private email server while serving as a Secretary of State, which reopened merely days before the elections; many believe that this had a decisive impact on the close race between the two candidates.

“A Higher Loyalty” is Comey’s first and, so far, only book.

“A Higher Loyalty PDF Summary”

On January 27, 2017, just two or three weeks after first meeting Trump, James Comey, then Director of the FBI, dined alone with the President at the White House.

Trump wanted to learn from Comey if he was under an investigation concerning Russia’s meddling in the US 2016 elections, and James told him that he wasn’t.

After this, Trump uttered an ominous sentence:

I need loyalty. I expect loyalty.

Comey promised Trump honesty.

In return, on May 9, he got the boot.

He didn’t expect that to happen, but, nevertheless, he expects that, in time, justice will prevail, and enough evidence will be found to prove that his dismissal was merely the final act of a long list of subtle actions with which the President tried obstructing justice.

One with which Trump tried to punish him for choosing “A Higher Loyalty” instead of a more personal one.

But, James Comey was always going to be someone serving a higher law.

When he was merely sixteen years old, a gunman – probably the Ramsey Rapist – broke into the home of his family, holding him and his younger brother Pete at gunpoint and stealing whatever he was able to find.

Comey was all but sure that this was going to be the last day of his life.

When he and Pete escaped unharmed from the ordeal, James reevaluated his life and heard his true calling for the first time: he was going to be someone who helps people.

At first, he wanted to be a doctor, but, as a pre-med student at William and Mary College, he happened upon the philosophy of Reinhold Niebuhr, and this changed his worldview once again.

So much so that he chose to use the name Reinhold Niebuhr as a cover for his very own Twitter account.

(By the way, even if you don’t know who Niebuhr is, you certainly know the Serenity Prayer – well, he wrote that!)

Anyway, influenced by Niebuhr, Comey decided to become a lawyer, and, as one, he got a job in the United States Attorney’s office in Manhattan, working for none other than Rudy Giuliani during his most exciting mobster-hunting period.

However, the most important thing he learned from Giuliani was the necessity of a trait the former mayor of New York City (and Trump’s attorney) lacked: humility.

In Comey’s opinion, no man can really become a leader until he develops humility and understanding that he doesn’t have all the answers.

Allegedly, Obama had that in abundance, soliciting opinions from those who disagreed with him and listening attentively.

Trump, on the other hand, is even less humble than Giuliani, speaking nonstop (and mostly about himself) and ending meetings the very second someone challenges his opinion.

Consequently, Comey is deeply worried:

I am writing in a time of great anxiety in my country. I understand the anxiety, but also believe America is going to be fine. I choose to see opportunity as well as danger.

Donald Trump’s presidency threatens much of what is good in this nation. We all bear responsibility for the deeply flawed choices put before voters during the 2016 election, and our country is paying a high price: this president is unethical and untethered to truth and institutional values. His leadership is transactional, ego-driven, and about personal loyalty…

I say this as someone who has worked in law enforcement for most of my life and served presidents of both parties. What is happening now is not normal. It is not fake news. It is not okay.

We believe you, Comey.

We certainly do.

Key Lessons from “A Higher Loyalty”

1.      James Comey Was Bullied as a Child… but Had a Great Boss
2.      What Is Integrity: The Cases of Martha Stewart and Hillary Clinton
3.      James Comey’s Six Traits of Great Leaders

James Comey Was Bullied as a Child… but Had a Great Boss

James Comey was born in 1960, in Yonkers, New York.

However, when he was in fifth grade, his family moved to Allendale, New Jersey, and James suddenly stopped being a popular kid.

On the contrary, he was now constantly bullied, on account of his bad haircut and patched-up clothes, both courtesy of his mother and some serious financial difficulties.

Fortunately, he had a great boss, Harry Howell, who prided himself on the cleanliness of his local grocery store.

And he was all a good leader should be: firm but not tyrannical, powerful yet merciful.

One time, after Comey had spilled numerous milk bottles, and Howell caught him mopping the mess up, he merely asked him: “Did you learn a lesson?”

Good, clean it up,” he added once he heard James’ authentic “Yes.

What Is Integrity: The Cases of Martha Stewart and Hillary Clinton

Many blame James Comey for seeking the spotlight, but, in his opinion, he’s merely doing his job.

That was the case back in 2003 when it was revealed that Stewart had sold her shares in ImClone Systems, after receiving a nonpublic tip from Peter Bacanovic, her broker.

The amount she saved?

Measly $50,000.

However, she subsequently lied to federal investigators, so Comey voted to persecute her, after which Stewart got five months in prison.

It needed to be done – Comey writes – since if it was a regular citizen, it certainly would have been done.

The same holds true for the Hillary Clinton email controversy.

In retrospective, Comey is obviously sad that his decision to reopen the investigation two weeks before the elections may have changed too many minds, but, even so, he would do it again.

Because the American public deserved to know before the elections, and because it was the right thing to do.

James Comey’s Six Traits of Great Leaders

In Comey’s pantheon of leaders, Barack Obama deserves a high place, because, for all his faults, he did have a fair amount of almost each of the six essential traits of great leaders.

In Comey’s opinion, a great leader should have:

#1. A sense of decency and integrity;
#2. Humility;
#3. Balance;
#4. Transparent motivations;
#5. An awareness that people like to live meaningful lives; and
#6. An understanding that while words matter, actions matter even more.

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“A Higher Loyalty Quotes”

Do that good as long as ever you can. Click To Tweet

Evil has an ordinary face. It laughs, it cries, it deflects, it rationalizes, it makes great pasta. Click To Tweet

I know I can be wrong, even when I am certain I am right. Listening to others who disagree with me and are willing to criticize me is essential to piercing the seduction of certainty. Click To Tweet

Ethical leaders do not run from criticism, especially self-criticism, and they don’t hide from uncomfortable questions. They welcome them. Click To Tweet

Everyone lies at some point in their life. The important questions are where, about what, and how often? Click To Tweet


Our Critical Review

Even before its release, “A Higher Loyalty” met with criticism from the Republican National Committee which even launched a website in an attempt to discredit Comey.

Even so – or possibly because of it – the book became a bestseller on presale orders only.

And, really, it doesn’t disappoint.

Let’s leave it at that.

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The Restless Wave PDF Summary

The Restless Wave PDFGood Times, Just Causes, Great Fights, and Other Appreciations

As his life is nearing to its inevitable end, John McCain feels the pressing need to cast a candid eye on all the good he had the privilege of experiencing and all the mistakes that he, unfortunately, made.

The result?

The Restless Wave,” possibly his final memoir.

Who Should Read “The Restless Wave”? And Why?

Writing for “The New York Times,” Senator Lindsey Graham remarks that “The Restless Wave” “should be required reading for anyone who wants to lead in a democracy.”

Yes, that means especially you, Donald!

John McCainAbout John McCain

John McCain is the senior US Senator from Arizona and the 2008 Republican nominee for President of the United States.

McCain served in the United States Navy from 1954 to 1981, a period during which he spent six years as a Vietnamese prisoner of war (1967-1973). In 1982, he was elected to the US State of Representatives, and four years later, he joined the Senate.

Together with his “alter ego,” Mark Salter, McCain has co-authored seven books: “Faith of My Fathers,” “Worth Fighting For,” “Why Courage Matters,” “Character Is Destiny,” “Hard Call,” “Thirteen Soldiers,” and “The Restless Wave. “

“The Restless Wave PDF Summary”

On July 14, 2017, John McCain, the senior Senator from Arizona, went to the Mayo Clinic Hospital in Phoenix to remove a blood clot above his left eye.

The surgical procedure went well, but the laboratory results announced five days later left a bitter taste in the mouth of many: John McCain was suffering from a very aggressive brain tumor, the one which eventually claimed the life of his one-time opponent and long-time friend, Ted Kennedy.

Unfortunately, even with treatment, the average survival time for cancers of the kind is about 14 months.

One year later, McCain is still around, fully aware of his own mortality and overwhelmed with feelings and “accumulated memories.”

“I don’t know how much longer I’ll be here,” writes the 82-year old one-time President nominee in “The Restless Wave,” just published:

Maybe I’ll have another five years. Maybe, with the advances in oncology, they’ll find new treatments for my cancer that will extend my life. Maybe I’ll be gone before you read this. My predicament is, well, rather unpredictable. But I’m prepared for either contingency, or at least I’m getting prepared. I have some things I’d like to take care of first, some work that needs finishing, and some people I need to see. And I want to talk to my fellow Americans a little more if I may.

And talk he does.

About everything from the aftereffects of the September 11 attacks through his losing campaign against Barack Obama in 2008 to Donald Trump and the supposed interference of Russia in the American 2016 elections.

And one gets the feeling that none of this is done with an intention to share the wisdom of old age and the insights of a life-long political career; it seems as if “The Restless Wave” exists solely for the sake of memories and for the likely benefit of future generations.

Bearing in mind that it’s McCain we’re talking about (the son and grandson of four-star admirals, and a Vietnamese prisoner of war for six years), unsurprisingly – albeit probably unintentionally – the one idea which pervades the book is his love for America and his belief in its values.

In a way, some episodes of the book read as if John McCain is trying to give an answer to Samuel Huntington’s still thought-provoking question “Who Are We?”

Take, for example, the 9/11 attacks.

McCain was in his office when one of the planes crashed into the Pentagon and, being a war veteran himself, fully understands the anger which followed, and even the logic behind the authorities’ decision to use “enhanced interrogation techniques” (EIT) to obtain relevant information from captured terrorists.

However, understanding the logic of something doesn’t mean agreeing with it.

Having experienced severe torture as a POW himself, McCain was one of the people on the frontline in the fight against the use of EIT for detainees in the War on Terror.

In “The Restless Wave” he explains succinctly why the matter was so important to him:

Some might read this and say to themselves, “Who gives a damn what happened to a terrorist after what they did on September 11?” But it’s not about them. It never was. What makes us exceptional? Our wealth? Our natural resources? Our military power? Our big, bountiful country?

No, our founding ideals and our fidelity to them at home and in our conduct in the world make us exceptional. They are the source of wealth and power. Living under the rule of law. Facing threats with confidence that our values make us stronger than our enemies. Acting as an example to other nations of how free people defend their liberty without sacrificing the moral conviction upon which it is based, respect for the dignity possessed by all God’s children, even our enemies. This is what made us the great nation that we are.

McCain has a point when he talks about the War in Iraq as well.

In a nutshell, he firmly supported the necessity of a war against Iraq – and one which will lead to a successful conclusion – once intelligence reports had demonstrated that Saddam Hussein possessed weapons of mass destruction.

However, once that turned out to be untrue, it’s only fair to say that the US made a big mistake starting the war.

And if one mistake wasn’t enough – goes on McCain – Obama made another when he decided to pull all American troops out of Iraq.

This, however, meant regional insurgencies, a new wave of terrorist attacks and the revival of Iran’s interest for Iraq.

True, McCain is optimistic about the future of the Asian country, but one feels that his very own analysis is too pessimistic for his positivity to make any sense.

But, then again, we hope that we are in the wrong.

Key Lessons from “The Restless Wave”

1.      The Overwhelming Burden of Accumulated Memories
2.      Know Thyself: America’s Exceptionalism
3.      Know Thine Enemy: Russia’s Interference

The Overwhelming Burden of Accumulated Memories

When John McCain found out that he was suffering from terminal brain cancer a year ago, he started feeling the weight of his accumulated memories.

Neither back then nor today he has any idea of how much time he has left ahead of him.

But once he dies, as the replicant Roy Batty movingly remarks in the final scene of “Blade Runner,” all the remarkable moments of his life “will be lost in time, like tears in rain.”

Fortunately, books can help us save at least some of them.

Hence “The Restless Wave.”

Know Thyself: America’s Exceptionalism

America, the first new nation of the world, is exceptional.

It is the leading country of the world in many aspects, and the one many Western countries look up to.

So, it must act in accordance with this reality.

In other words, there should be no episodes of torture (Guantanamo Bay) or faked intelligence (the Iraq War) in the grand story of America.

These are disastrous “breaches of American ideals” and have already stained its reputation.

We must not allow others to even think of repeating them in the future.

Know Thine Enemy: Russia’s Interference

Some time ago, McCain had an intimate discussion with a former British diplomat with links to Putin who told him that a retired British intelligence officer has information which conclusively proves that the Russians have a dossier of Trump with data which can be used to blackmail him.

After obtaining the “dossier,” McCain, always the fervent (but also the naïve) believer in the integrity of American institutions, handed the files to the FBI.

He believes that FBI and Robert Mueller will do the right thing.

Our intuition says: “Nyet.”

Though we would like to be wrong on this one as well.

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“The Restless Wave Quotes”

We have made mistakes. We haven’t always used our power wisely. We have abused it sometimes and we’ve been arrogant. But, as often as not, we recognized those wrongs, debated them openly, and tried to do better. Click To Tweet

The good we have done for humanity surpasses the damage caused by our errors. Click To Tweet

We have sought to make the world more stable and secure, not just our own society. We have advanced norms and rules of international relations that have benefited all. Click To Tweet

For reasons of basic self-interest we must continue to lead the long, patient effort to make the world freer and more just. Click To Tweet

We live in a land made from ideals, not blood and soil. We are custodians of those ideals at home, and their champion abroad. Click To Tweet


Our Critical Review

John McCain’s “The Restless Wave” is a deeply personal book, casting a nostalgically critical eye on the past and a hopeful one to the future.

Part memoir, part autobiography, “The Restless Wave” may be McCain’s “final public act,” one that will hopefully serve as “a self-help manual for a country that has, at least for the moment, lost its way.” (“The Washington Post”)

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Green to Gold PDF Summary

Green to Gold PDFHow Smart Companies Use Environmental Strategy to Innovate, Create Value, and Build Competitive Advantage

Most start-ups face difficulties early on. Creating value in an overly-competitive market is not as simple as ABC.

Although building awareness is not child’s play, there is always something that you can do.

In this book summary, we try to put the essential ingredients together and focus on mixing it up.

Who Should Read “Green to Gold”? And Why?

To be honest, we had a hard time trying to put a label on this process. Anyway, the transition from Green to Gold is not a piece of cake.

Even if you possess the means, but lack the support, you can’t merely get to the top. Sometimes it’s hard for logic to prevail over emotion, and that’s why this book is best suited for sharp thinkers.

In other words, we recommend it to those who know the meaning of critical-thinking and understand how to apply it on a daily basis.

About Daniel C. Esty and Andrew S. Winston

Daniel C. EstyDaniel C. Esty is an American lawyer, policymaker and a Hillhouse Professor of Environmental Law and Policy at Yale University. He is also the author of several books.

Andrew S. Winston currently works as the Director of the Corporate Environmental Strategy Project.

“Green to Gold PDF Summary”

Companies are aware that going green is not accomplishable without hitting a few rocks down the road. In particular, the authors outline two kinds of pressure that most firms can’t withstand:

  • From the world with various sorts of needs
  • From the stakeholders who try to influence the organization

So, how to comply the company’s policies with the physical world? First and foremost, you have to understand the nature of decision-making. Without the physical presence of certain individuals and their freedom to leverage economic capabilities, you can’t make any difference.

Indeed, all businesses are strongly dependent on resources, which affect the performance of the company. Airline industry requires kerosene; freight forwarding companies need trucks and load, etc. Despite all these individual requirements, almost the entire economy succumbs to ten environmental factors that obstruct the operating activities:

  • Climate change
  • Toxic substances and chemicals
  • Waste management
  • Diversity in finding energy sources
  • The availability of water
  • Biodiversity
  • Air pollution
  • Ozone depletion, ocean health, and deforestation.

As a company owner, you have to be knowledgeable about the effects these factors produce, and how to resists them!

This list is backed by overwhelming evidence that shows clearly why many experts in the field choose to attach weight to the data. Even if you are not entirely sure in the accuracy of the information presented, you can still rely on the trust put up by these specialists.

By doing so, you’ll be one step ahead of any environmental issue that may befall on your company. In addition, strong feelings tend to be a potent asset in pushing the stakeholders to draw conclusions to catch the much-talked-about “Green Wave.”

To better understand their rule over an organization, let’s divide them into five broad subcategories or groups:

  • Rule-makers and watchdogs” – In other words, this group represents government regulators and nongovernmental institutions.
  • Idea generators and opinion leaders” – As the name implies, this group symbolize the power of media and academics.
  • Business partners and competitors” – Mostly B2B customers as well as Industry associations accompanied by suppliers.
  • Consumers and community” – Mainly officials, and the general public which includes activists and representatives of local communities.
  • Investors and risk assessors” – The last spot is reserved for broking firms, bankers, and stock market analysts.

How did Ford lose $25 million when it decided to give their contribution to the project of creating Conservation International’s Center for Environmental Leadership in Business? The officials didn’t realize that NGO places emphasis on tropical biodiversity, a global issue that has nothing to do with Ford’s operating activities and manufacturing processes.

Let’s get this straight – nobody denies the positive effects of biodiversity. Nonetheless, Ford in trying to accomplish something missed out on everything that’s going on in front of them.

Here are a dozen other mistakes you should avoid:

  • Misjudging the needs of the market
  • Expecting a price premium
  • Misunderstanding customers
  • Eco-isolation” – Enforce green mentality in the company. It’s not advisable to create a separate green group whose action will be ignored.
  • Middle-management strain
  • Silo thinking
  • Inertia
  • Claims outpacing actions – Stroll the talk.
  • Embrace Surprises – Anticipate possible twists, and plan with caution.
  • Making the perfect the enemy of the good – Don’t be rigid. Trade-offs must be held as an option at all times because being second-best is not the worst that can happen.
  • Ignoring the needs of the stakeholders
  • Unwilling to tell the whole story

Key Lessons from “Green to Gold”

1.      Target influential people
2.      Understand the process of going green
3.      Get the big picture of downside and upside plays

Target influential people

Roll in and discuss the idea of a partnership with influential people who could then put in a good word. These initiatives are vital for reaching a stage where you can actually discuss the notion of expansion.

These charismatic leaders are the bridge you need to cross to succeed.

Understand the process of going green

Anyway, these pressures are not something you should feel a lump in the throat for. In fact, you should be thankful for the opportunity provided to compete and handle challenges.

How is that even possible? Green-plays is expanding on the global arena because of the alignment with the practices of best-in-the-industry companies such as Wal-Mart, Toyota, DuPont, etc.

Get the big picture of downside and upside plays

From this standpoint, having these eight plays at your disposal can be of huge difference and relevance to either the downside or the upside.

First of all, it’s self-explanatory why the downside plays cut costs and handle regulatory hurdles. The upside plays, on the other hand, are introducing new green tangible/intangible commodities to the market and emphasizes brand awareness.

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“Green to Gold Quotes”

In the very near future, no company will be positioned for industry leadership and sustained profitability without factoring environmental issues into its strategy. Click To Tweet If the facts don't square with green claims, charges of greenwashing are sure to follow. Click To Tweet Greener products often cost more up front, for instance, but end up saving the customer money down the road. Salespeople need to understand this positioning. Click To Tweet Solo environmental champions almost always fail. Successful corporate environmental strategies build on thinking from across the company. Click To Tweet Yes, it helps if a belief in stewardship is built into a company's history. But any company can make the commitment and find innovative ways to follow through on it. Click To Tweet

Our Critical Review

Having the opportunities right in front of you doesn’t serve as a guarantee for success. This book gives a review of what’s needs to be implemented in the process from “rags to riches.”

Take a quick scan, and you’ll see that it is worth the effort!

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Business-Dō PDF Summary – Hiroshi Mikitani

Business-Dō PDFThe Way to Successful Leadership

You can translate this book’s title – “Business-Dō” – into “The Dao of Business.”

Its author?

A billionaire.

Need anything more?

Who Should Read “Business-Dō”? And Why?

If you want to be successful in your business, read this book.

It offers 10 principles you’ll certainly want to follow.

And 78 more as a bonus.

Hiroshi MikitaniAbout Hiroshi Mikitani

Hiroshi Mikitani is a Japanese billionaire businessman.

He is the founder and CEO of Rakuten, Inc., the president of Crimson Group, and a board member of Lyft.

He is also the chairman of Tokyo Philharmonic Orchestra and the football club Vissel Kobe.

He is worth $4 billion.

“Business-Dō PDF Summary”

In case you didn’t know by now, Hiroshi Mikitani is one of the 500 richest people in the world, worth around 4 billion dollars – most of it earned via Rakuten, Inc., the largest e-commerce company in Japan.

When he founded it back in 1996, there was no Alibaba or even Google; and Amazon.com was barely launched.

22 years later, Rakuten is one of the largest Internet companies in terms of revenue in the world, earning more than, say, Groupon or Airbnb!

So, in a nutshell, Mikitani – affectively nicknamed “Mickey” while at Harvard – knows his stuff.

And in “Business-Dō,” he shares the 88 signposts of his “dō,” which is the Japanese translation of the far more famous “dao,” a Chinese word for “route,” “way,” “path” or “road.”

Speaking of paths, Hiroshi “Mickey” Mikitani has pretty straightforward advice on what the nature of your own should be:

It’s not impossible to overtake others on the same route, but it’s extremely difficult. In order to overtake your rivals, it’s better to seek out a new path.

Now that you’ve got that straightened out, it’s time that you move on to the “Business-Dō” principles!

As we said above, there are 88 of them, but ten represent the core of Mikitani’s philosophy.

We’ll look at the other 78 in our “Key Lessons” section.

Here are the 10 core principles:

#1. All concepts are relative

If you choose to seek out a new path, there will always be many people around you telling you day in day out that you shouldn’t do it.

That’s because most people are conventional; in fact, that’s the very definition of conventionality.

So, when there are thousands who tell you it cannot be done, do what a famous poem by Edgar Albert Guest advices, “just buckle in with a bit of a grin… and go to it!”

#2. Believe in the power of the moonshot

As Mikitani says:

NASA made it to the moon because the moon was the goal. It wasn’t simply the result of gradual technical improvements.

In other words, you can achieve the impossible.

Because the minute you set it as a goal – it becomes possible.

#3. Learn the difference between a group and a team

We know it’s a cliché, but, then again, there’s a reason why it’s a cliché.

No business has ever succeeded because of an individual, no matter how exceptional; they all owe their success to a collection of human beings.

#4. Think about your mindset, skills, and knowledge

Daydreaming is not enough. You need to start working hard to achieve it. And the process doesn’t end with 10,000 hours of practice.

In fact, you should try acquiring new skills as long as you live.

#5. Question yourself

Humility is the essence of virtuous leadership. Keep your ego in check by simply being aware that sometimes you are not that smart as you are lucky.

#6. A brand is a flag

A reputation can either make or break your company.

In other words, people will like to work with your company if they like working with you; and vice versa.

So, build a reputation in accordance with your purpose and values.

Your employers and customers will recognize this.

#7. The Internet transformation continues

Sometimes, you’ll make a mistake.

As Elsa sang – let it go!

There’s no point in looking back. The past is past – and the future awaits you.

And even though you can’t predict it, you can certainly do something to make the most of it, to synchronize some circumstances with your wants and needs

#8. The Internet will curate the world’s knowledge and data, but the human touch will stay be key

No matter what you do, don’t forget to add some human touch to it.

Providing it not only differentiates you from your competition, but it also gets you closer to your customers.

#9. Taking action leads to deeper thinking

It’s important that you develop some bias for action. Because while theory is good, practice makes perfect.

Make a mistake once; you won’t repeat it the second time!

There’s a reason why “trial and error” is the fundamental method of problem-solving!

#10. Continuously improve by fraction; it’s the key to what others call “good luck”

The Japanese call it kaizen.

And it means improving continuously – slowly, but surely.

Step by step, you’ll get to where you want to be.

Key Lessons from “Business-Dō”

1.      Improve and Develop (Lessons #11-#26)
2.      It’s All About Relationships (Lessons #27-#40)
3.      Get Your Organization Moving (Lessons #41-#56)
4.      Win Every Battle (Lessons #57-#80)
5.      Nurture a Global Mindset (Lessons #81-#88)

Improve and Develop (Lessons #11-#26)

#11. Push yourself to the limit – the way an athlete does.
#12. Combine intuition and creativity with logic and rationality.
#13. Write your obituary.
#14. Practice seeing yourself as others see you.
#15. Never stop learning. Ever.
#16. Many small successes = one big success.
#17. Be and stay curious.
#18. Find a partner and play some intellectual “catch” with him/her.
#19. Set clear goals.
#20. Information comes from everywhere: be attentive.
#21. Don’t rationalize your behavior as others do.
#22. Set measurable goals – and check your progress.
#23. Aim to understand the framework.
#24. Set new goals – once you reach the old ones.
#25. Fix your weaknesses – once you identify them.
#26. Exercise, both physically and mentally.

It’s All About Relationships (Lessons #27-#40)

#27. Always add value.
#28. Put yourself in other people’s shoes.
#29. Discover the whys of your ideas and actions.
#30. Risk – but don’t gamble.
#31. Seek out the best practices.
#32. When someone disagrees with you – listen!
#33. Co-opetition = competition and/or cooperation
#34. Teach.
#35. Develop win-win relationships.
#36. Move fast.
#37. Report, contact, and consult.
#38. Analyze from every angle.
#39. Be an entrepreneur all the way – know as much as you can!
#40. Be courageous!

Get Your Organization Moving (Lessons #41-#56)

#41. You need KPIs – because numbers give clarity.
#42. Allocate resources carefully.
#43. Lead by teaching.
#44. Save time by removing 90% of your meetings (see #49).
#45. Encourage competition – but only if it is healthy.
#46. Celebrate your successes with your employees!
#47. Be efficient: seek out barriers (“bottlenecks”) and remove them!
#48. Create your own turning point: reinvent ahead!
#49. Meet with your team briefly every morning to set goals and direction.
#50. Think like a manager.
#51. See what works and scale it.
#52. Earn trust with your employees.
#53. Establish symbolic rituals.
#54. Combine pressure and excitement.
#55. Velocity and agility are not the same.
#56. Improve transparency by dividing teams into small groups.

Win Every Battle (Lessons #57-#80)

#57. Plan for the future.
#58. Hypothesize and then test, learn, and repeat.
#59. Get things done.
#60. Examine things from every angle.
#61. Keep your eyes on what lies ahead.
#62. Factorize.
#63. Lean operations generate innovation and growth.
#64. Think about both vertical and horizontal competition.
#65. Follow the Mikitani curve: add extra 0.5% when you think you’ve done your best.
#66. Identify your mission.
#67. Don’t do something.
#68. Wrestle.
#69. Master the timeline.
#70. Pay attention to the details.
#71. Fail forward.
#72. Examine data and find trends and patterns.
#73. Think about value chains.
#74. Match your competitors – and then make one more step forward.
#75. No business is special.
#76. Use all your assets – and, thus, boost your profits!
#77. Strategize, but execute as well.
#78. Don’t follow: find your own path.
#79. Cut costs.
#80. Create shikumi.

Nurture a Global Mindset (Lessons #81-#88)

#81. Communicate.
#82. Cross borders.
#83. Seek firsthand information.
#84. Think global: The Internet will eliminate national borders.
#85. Learn from the world’s best practices.
#86. Thinking globally results in local success as well.
#87. Thoroughly and humbly analyze past successes.
#88. Even if you don’t get there first, it’s never too late to start and do it better!

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“Business-Dō Quotes”

Dreams are for the young. This is a beautiful saying. But it’s wrong. Dreams are the very fuel that moves our society forward. Click To Tweet

Understanding who you are is the first step to success. Know your weak points, and think about how you can continue to grow. Click To Tweet

Abstract action will lead only to abstract results. You won’t get anywhere if you don’t have a clear destination. Click To Tweet

We work to earn an income. However, a purely financial reward is not enough to bring out our true strengths. Click To Tweet

There are only two types of people in this world: those who seek ways of achieving things, and those who make excuses for not being able to do things. Click To Tweet

Our Critical Review

To be honest, we expected a lot more: “Business-Dō” is just too repetitive beyond its 10 core principles.

But its author is a billionaire – so who are we to judge?

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Leadership and Self-Deception PDF Summary

Leadership and Self-Deception PDF Getting Out of the Box

Even though you may not know it – you’re probably living inside a box.

Getting out of it is easy.

Especially once you read “Leadership and Self-Deception.”

Who Should Read “Leadership and Self-Deception”? And Why?

An organization is only as good as its leader.

And “Leadership and Self-Deception” will teach you to become an inspiring one – since it’s not only a business fable but also a life-altering parable.

So, read it specifically if you are a manager with an objective to transform your organization for the better.

But also read it if you feel that you’re not treating some people you love the way they deserve – regardless of what you’re currently working.

About the Arbinger Institute

Founded by Dr. C. Terry Warner in 1979, the Arbinger Institute is a global consulting company consisting of many internationally revered multidisciplinary scholars.

A leader in organizational culture, the Institute has published few more classics in the field, such as “The Anatomy of Peace” and “Choice.”

“Leadership and Self-Deception PDF Summary”

Just like Patrick Lencioni’s “The Five Dysfunctions of a Team” or Spencer Johnson’s “Who Moved My Cheese,” “Leadership and Self-Deception” by the Arbinger Institute is a business fable.

In other words – to borrow the definition from Wikipedia – it is a “fictional story that shares… lessons that are intended to be applied in the business world with the aim to improve the organizational culture.”

The fictional part of this story is pretty much straightforward.

It concerns a fictional company with a pretty neat name, the Zagrum Company, and a guy with a rather big problem he knows nothing about, Tom Callum.

Tom Callum is one of Zagrum’s new division heads – i.e., senior managers – and little does he know that he is about to have the meeting of his life!

It’s one of those traditional day-long one-on-one meetings Zagrum prides in, and the guy sitting opposite Tom is Zagrum’s executive VP (and Tom’s soon-to-be new boss), Bud Jefferson.

The subject?



Well, not only because “there’s nothing more common in organizations than self-deception,” but also because “self-deception actually determines one’s experience in every aspect of life.”

So, in other words, this fable just got real!

And this parable is not merely about work anymore; it’s about life as well!

Self-deception starts with self-betrayal, which is – to use a word the authors of this book use – “the germ” which creates the disease of self-deception.

And self-betrayal is nothing more – or less – than an act contrary to what you actually want to do. It’s getting stuck in a box you don’t even know exists!

Now, how is that possible, you may ask?

Well, let’s go over a simple – and quite literal – example.

Think of a baby crawling around the living room and somehow ending up under a piece of furniture (say, a table) with a narrow entrance.

It knows that it got in; but it doesn’t know how to get out.

So, the baby starts moving back and forth, banging its head and crying at the top of its lungs – but, no matter what it does, the table is still there.

And unlike an outside observer – say, its parents – this baby is unable to see the problem because it is inside it:

Identify someone with a problem, and you’ll be identifying someone who resists the suggestion that he has a problem. That’s self-deception – the inability to see that one has a problem. Of all organizational problems, it’s the most common – and the most damaging.

Now, let’s translate the analogy into more relevant terms and see how self-deception (rooted in self-betrayal) can cause all kinds of problems in the life of any individual and in the organization of any company!

So, the baby getting stuck under a table (or, as the authors of this book like to say, getting stuck in a box) was due to an act of self-betrayal. The baby’s intention, after all, wasn’t to get stuck; it just wanted to crawl from point A to point B.

And that’s exactly what will most certainly happen to you someday during your career.

For example, even though you’ll be doing your best to meet a deadline, fatigue will catch up with you eventually, and you’ll fall asleep at your desk.

Now, comes the real problem.

What are you going to tell your boss?

Surely not, “Mr. Jefferson, sorry I didn’t make it: I fell asleep…”!

Well, chances are – and both students and science have proven this over and over again – you’ll just think of an excuse.

And you’ve just let the cat out of the bag!

Because, even though you don’t know it yet, you’ve just started building a world of boxes!

You see, once we betray ourselves, we are much more interested in finding a justification for our actions, then the objective truth.

In other words, mistakes were made, of course – but not by me.

However, this is exactly what the box is: a distorted view of reality, in which there’s nothing more important than your needs and other people are just objects, that is, means by which you can get what you want (vehicles) or possible threats to your success (obstacles).

It wasn’t my fault,” the baby of our analogy would have probably said if it knew how to talk, “it was the table’s!

It may sound funny to you, but that’s exactly what you start doing once you found yourself in a box:

In the box, I’m blind to the truth about myself and others. I’m even blind to my own motivations.

There’s an even bigger problem: once you are in the box and start pointing fingers around, you are actually provoking those around you to shut themselves in their boxes as well: “you blame me… well, I blame him!”

Needless to add, this leads to an organization rooted in mutual mistreatments and mutual justifications.

That is, an unhealthy world of collusion, in which everybody is trying to self-justify his actions to (and this is the scary part) stay in his box.

Because inside it, you can’t see that you may have a problem as well – and it is much more convenient that way.

However, as should be obvious by now, this can be only temporarily true, the way a booze-fueled night is only temporarily a release; the headache and the hangover settle in the morning after and, suddenly, alcohol is a problem.

The best part?

There’s an easy solution to all of this!

You see, the very moment you start thinking about getting out of a box, you’re already halfway out of it!

Because now you see the problem from the outside!

And that’s when you finally see self-justifications for what they are – and your mistakes for what they have been all along!

And people – for what they should be: not vehicles or obstacles, but persons with needs and dreams like yourself.

Key Lessons from “Leadership and Self-Deception”

1.      What Is the Box?
2.      Getting Stuck and Living in the Box
3.      Getting Out of the Box

What Is the Box?

“The Box” is the world you create around yourself once you start treading the road of self-betrayal and self-deception.

Instead of seeing things as they are, you start seeing a distorted reality of which you are the center, and all the other people are merely obstacles or vehicles.

Getting Stuck and Living in the Box

It’s almost too easy to get stuck in a box: find a self-justification once you make a mistake (instead of admitting to it) and you’re already there.

The problem?

You’re getting everybody inside it as well!

In time, living in your box may become so natural to you, that you may start carrying it with you everywhere and start seeing everything through it.

That’s basically the definition of a prejudice or a bias.

Getting Out of the Box

It’s easy to get out of the box.

As Bud Jefferson tells Tom:

In the moment we cease resisting others, we’re out of the box – liberated from self-justifying thoughts and feelings. This is why the way out of the box is always right before our eyes – because the people we’re resisting are right before our eyes… The moment you see another as a person, with needs, hopes, and worries as real and legitimate as your own – you are out of the box.

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“Leadership and Self-Deception Quotes”

To the extent we are self-deceived, our leadership is undermined at every turn. Click To Tweet

When we are self-deceived, we’re ’in the box. Click To Tweet

Success in an organization is a function of whether we’re in the box or not, and our influence as leaders depends on the same thing. Click To Tweet

When I betray myself, I begin to see the world in a way that justifies my self-betrayal. Click To Tweet

When I see a self-justifying world, my view of reality becomes distorted. Click To Tweet

Our Critical Review

Even though we feel that “Leadership and Self-Deception” sometimes oversimplifies the complexity of organizational problems, it seems that the book isn’t too wide off the mark when it claims that you can’t overestimate the effects of self-betrayal and self-deception on the wellbeing of an individual or a company.

And since it’s a parable, it’s an easy and enjoyable read as well!

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The Leadership Challenge PDF Summary

The Leadership Challenge PDFHow to Make Extraordinary Things Happen in Organizations

Every once in a while, leaders come across a dead-end situation, which instigates a change of policy.

Being in such position forces them to learn and broaden their knowledge; a mentality that heralds intensity and vision.

In brief, we focus on the five core principles that every leader should take into account when forming a long-term strategy.

Let’s roll!

Who Should Read “The Leadership Challenge”? And Why?

This practical guide challenges all premises linked to leadership that is presented as a non-changeable entity. For argument’s sake, we firmly believe that robust and rigid approach is not suitable for leadership.

The Leadership Challenge” is just one branch that puts an accent on various elements that construct the executive character of multiple individuals.

As such, we highly recommend it to all leaders and managers who wish to tackle their restrictions and shallow beliefs.

About James M. Kouzes & Barry Z. Posner

James M. KouzesJames M. Kouzes can be regarded as a leadership expert, who spent his entire life in discovering new dimensions of management and handling problems.

He is also the author of several books.

Barry Z. PosnerBarry Z. Posner is a professor of leadership at Santa Clara University and an award-winning writer who co-authored a dozen books.  

“The Leadership Challenge PDF Summary”

The Leadership Challenge is literally one comprehensive case study which zooms in on determining the process of achieving great results on an organizational level. The mechanism of understanding the “The Five Practice Leadership” emerged as a result of extensive research conducted by Kouzes and Posner.

Their main goal was to discover what leaders must nail down to motivate others and distribute inspiration on all layers.

The first surveys in 1983 proved to be decisive regarding the issue many leaders had on their shoulders – lack of efficiency.

What is your method to enhance these numbers and wind up the discussion that leads to quarrels? As a leader, do you have a way by which you track your progress and challenge your ideas?

During the course of 3 decades, the authors managed to collect more than 75k responses or answers to the query, which serve as a cornerstone to their ultimate discovery.

In the survey, the defined five key practices or concepts which according to both Kouzes and Posner are decisive the overcome the challenge:

  • Model the Way
  • Inspire a Shared Vision
  • Challenge the Process
  • Enable Others to Act
  • Encourage the Heart.

Model the Way

Recognize their achievements and celebrate their successes on behalf of the organization. Model the way illustrates the great leaders’ ability to lead the way by being the example others should follow. In other words, unlike bosses, proficient leaders tend to cherish a specific behavior that induces freshness.

Model the Way” emboldens the organization to follow in the leader’s footsteps, which must pave the way with eagerness and passion. Once you have a broad understanding of what others like to hear, and how they wanted to be treated; you should devise a strategy to deliver a strong message.

Inspire a Shared Vision

Inspire a Shared Vision” as the name implies focuses on building that team cohesion and spirit which helps the organization to move towards the end goal collectively. Also known as “Exemplary leaders” these individuals have that six-sense to take the last minute shot and display their courageous efforts.

On top of that, great leaders possess the skills to anticipate various scenarios that may befall on the organization in the foreseeable future.

Without it, the company cannot drive people into the composite story which shares the vision and the principal values an employee must embrace. Building the right mentality, and finding the right set of balance can straight out many of the problems.

Challenge the Process

Challenge the Process” is literally asking all the persons involved in the decision-making process to adopt an out-of-the-box attitude which propels the company to push onwards. It stimulates the employees to share ideas and encourages them to stretch the boundaries of the organization.

Exemplary leaders are not merely focusing on establishing or enacting rules which can be construed as a way to monitor the operations. Their broader vision allows for sidestepping the need of micromanagement to occur and prompts them to aim attention at investing and learning.

Enable Others to Act

Enable Others to Act” is a process that cast doubt upon an attitude that amplifies the strength of a single decision-making body. To put it differently, it opposes the idea of building centralized chain-of-command which entirely neglects the process of creating an engaging-environment.

You have to believe, and you have to develop the skills to transmit your belief. It’s your passion that brings the vision to life. If you’re going to lead, you have to recognize that your enthusiasm and expressiveness are among the strongest allies in your efforts to generate commitment in others. Don’t underestimate your talents.

It’s unthinkable to force someone to apply your principles, especially if you are recognized for your notorious ability to deliver low-quality solutions. Strengthen the team means to provide guidance and offering them a hand to enhance their self-confidence and competence.  

Encourage the Heart

Kouzes accentuate the last practice “Encourage the Heart,” and he is particularly fond of monitoring the leadership role that boils down to the right mentality. Indeed, this one place emphasis on being genuinely sincere and friendly towards your co-workers and those that represent the company.

In the digital age, the companies realized the importance of nurturing a positive working atmosphere where collaboration and engagements are not obstructed by the organizational hierarchy.

Key Lessons from “The Leadership Challenge”

1.      The power of persuasion
2.      The idea of finishing in strong fashion
3.      Rise to the occasion

The power of persuasion

The tricky thing regarding the skills to influence another person is that it’s not ethical unless you deliver something of superior quality.

If your product or service is unsurpassable in all regards, you can then try to persuade the public by presenting the benefits of this magnificent breakthrough.

The idea of finishing in strong fashion

No one, and we mean not a single person on this planet can give you more than you deserve. Energetic and self-motivated leaders understand perfectly that it’s up to them to decide the outcome of the situation.

Learn from these gifted individuals who stick up for real values, not some quasi-policies.

Rise to the occasion

You will need to sharpen your communication skills to be able to convey anything of significance.

The alignment between the company’s vision and personal goals is tough, and being able to cross that bridge can make a huge difference.

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“The Leadership Challenge Quotes”

Exemplary leaders know that if they want to gain commitment and achieve the highest standards, they must be models of the behavior they expect of others. Click To Tweet Change is the province of leaders. It is the work of leaders to inspire people to do things differently, to struggle against uncertain odds, and to persevere toward a misty image of a better future. Click To Tweet Leading by example is more effective than leading by command. Click To Tweet You can’t command commitment; you have to inspire it. Click To Tweet When you give people a choice about being a part of what’s happening, they’re more likely to be committed to a project. Is there a piece of something you are working on that you could open up to others? Click To Tweet

Our Critical Review

Sometimes all we need is sheer will to reduce the stigma attached to problem-solving. In most occasions, we require expertise and years of experience in the field stimulated by the proper attitude.

In this book, you’ll learn how to acquire both, and what extra features you need to triumph over skepticism.

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The Evolution of Cooperation PDF Summary

The Evolution of Cooperation PDFThe Way to Successful Leadership

It can be said with some confidence that developing into a self-motivated and compassionate leader requires mental resilience.

Not all individuals can cope with the burden that derives from such responsible decision-making.

In this book summary, we try to use the Prisoner’s Dilemma matrix to encapsulate the author’s main findings.

Who Should Read “The Evolution of Cooperation”? And Why?

People are social creatures, and as such we are compelled to get together with other individuals who share the same moral values. Getting to know the other, is, in fact, understanding yourself.

Cooperation is neither modern nor stylish term. It originates from the ancient gatherings of the Stone Age, where groups tried to improve their chances of survival by collectivizing their efforts.

A movement with one accord is proving to be harder than we imagined.

The Evolution of Cooperation” gives some thoughts on this problematic, and that’s why it’s perfect for managers and leaders in the making.

About Robert Axelrod

Robert AxelrodRobert Marshall Axelrod is a renowned American political scientist born on May 27, 1943. Currently, he is a professor at the University of Michigan and the author of several books.

In 1964, Axelrod obtained his B.A. in mathematics from the University of Chicago, and five years later he received his Ph.D. from Yale University.

“The Evolution of Cooperation PDF Summary”

Truly, we couldn’t help but notice that cooperation emerges in various forms, depending on the environmental factors.

Robert loves to use real-live vivid examples to give a brief explanation on how collaboration or alliance can change.

Have you ever been heartbroken because the partner didn’t appreciate your efforts? Do you have a hard time when it comes to aligning personal agenda with company’s objectives? Is it worth it to show compassion and kindness to those who are not willing to repay the favor?

The discrimination of others may be among the most important of abilities because it allows one to handle interactions with many individuals without having to treat them all the same, thus making possible the rewarding of cooperation from one individual and the punishing of defection from another

What advice would you give to other people? Or if you want to take the matter even further – How should a country react to Blitzkrieg – a hostile invasion without a declaration of war?

To drive this point home further, it’s best if you learn the ropes of Prisoner’s Dilemma matrix. It’s a simple 2 row and 2 column visual graphic that forms four equal adjoining boxes.

Evidently, each of these boxes represents a different case or scenario that illustrate an outcome inherent in such circumstances:

  • Box 1: Cooperation column and cooperation row – The first box manifests the highest form of cooperation, and in doing so – each player receives 3 points for its efforts.
  • Box 2: Defection column and cooperation row – The second box entirely differs from the first one on the ground that unity is not always the best solution. The column player decides to abandon the coalition, but the row participants strive for cooperation. In doing so, the row player receives zero points, and then defecting column player win the game by accumulating 5 points.
  • Box 3: Cooperation column and defection row – This box, in fact, represent the inversive process of the previous box. The column player now is pressing for cooperation and the row player chooses to seize the momentum and defect.
    The winner is the row player with 5 points, and the column player goes home empty-handed.
  • Box 4: Defection column and defection row – In the last case scenario where both players decide to defect and go on their own, each of the participants receives P – which stands for punishment. They both get one point.

As the process exhibits, the game awards the players based on their decision during the show. However, the worst part is that the participants can manipulate the system.

For instance, if the game is played once, both players will logically choose defection to accrue the benefits of one-time play.

If the play is extended to several rounds, the decision-making becomes more rational. If the participants settle upon the idea of embracing cooperation, they will maximize their points!

So, the ground to make split second-decisions shifts due to the intensity and continuance of the game. Taking advantage of cooperative strategy breaks the chains of ego-centric approach.

This logic indicates that both of the players would want to amplify the beneficial side of the deal until the game reaches its end.

Investors know that every penny that is not included in the endless cash flow process loses its value. The same logic goes for Prisoner’s Dilemma because participants prefer immediate payoffs over future ones. Nonetheless, the value of the reward is not calculated in such manner.

By taking all these elements into account, a person might be thrown off balance. So, what’s the best strategy an iterated Prisoner’s Dilemma of infinite time?

To get the big picture, researchers organized a contest and invited renowned figures from all spheres of influence including psychology, math, sociology, to give their contribution to the project.

All of them were obligated to propose computer programs that can overshadow the other one. Out of 14 candidates, Tit for Tat was announced the winner. A professor from the University of Toronto – Anatol Rapoport was the inventor of the program.

Tit for Tat is a simple, and technologically advanced program that functions in a highly unique fashion. It starts with cooperation, as the main move that symbolizes a good fighting spirit.

Next up, the program emulates the movements of other computer applications, making it literally impossible to outsmart it.

What accounts for TIT FOR TAT’s robust success is its combination of being nice, retaliatory, forgiving, and clear.

The 20th century will always remain in history as the bloodiest era of human progress. Let’s jump into World War I and examine the activity at the Western Front where troops from both sides used this cooperative push to gain some momentum.

Staying in trenches for months and fighting the opposing side fiercely for few inches of the territory was their daily routine. What came as a surprise that German or Allied soldiers would walk right into the enemy’s shooting range, but the soldiers would ceasefire.

A new world – driven by the endless fire of cooperation and mutual understanding.

Key Lessons from “The Evolution of Cooperation”

1.      The horrors and miracles of World War I
2.      Tit for Tat came out on top
3.      Anticipate the flow of the game

The horrors and miracles of World War I

Even in war times, the cooperation emerged in a spontaneous manner. Along the entire Western, Front soldiers refused to take part in massive killings and strived for reconciliation.

This serves as a proof that cooperation is a powerful strategy that is widely underestimated.

Tit for Tat came out on top

As it turns out, Tit for Tat won the game by a mile – and earned 504 points in a 200 move tournament. It would be ignorant to criticize other programs because pretty much all of them proved its effectiveness onto the battlefield.

Anticipate the flow of the game

The inability to judge the course of the contest makes the participant more aversive towards cooperation and more eager to embrace defection.

In general, everyone would agree that indefinite time-frame is a down-to-earth scenario.

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“The Evolution of Cooperation Quotes”

Based upon the tournament results and the formal propositions, four simple suggestions are offered for individual choice: do not be envious of the other player’s success; do not be the first to defect; reciprocate both cooperation and… Click To Tweet Reciprocity is certainly not a good basis for a morality of aspiration. Yet it is more than just the morality of egoism. Click To Tweet It is not an exaggeration to say that reciprocity is a way of life in the Senate. Click To Tweet If the other player is not likely to be seen again, defecting right away is better than being nice. Click To Tweet For cooperation to prove stable, the future must have a sufficiently large shadow. Click To Tweet

Our Critical Review

Even though this book was firstly published in 1984, it’s preserved its glow and status over the years. As an evergreen topic, no one can take away its worth.

We had the honors of indulging in such amazing reading-time and advise you to do the same.

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Leading Professionals PDF Summary

Leading Professionals PDFPower, Politics, and Prima Donnas

Power and politics are not like fire and water – they are like flames and charcoal. If you get into the water, you’ll get wet.

What we are trying to say is – many people fail to recognize the signs which indicate a foreseeable reality.

Leaders’ job is to anticipate everything and instruct others on how to steer the wheel.

Who Should Read “Leading Professionals”? And Why?

Leading Professionals is an applicable book that is written for the sake of newcomers and those eager to expand their knowledge in the realm of leadership. In other words, it’s perfect for individuals who are willing to dig up the mysteries of proper management.

We sincerely urge you to join Laura’s cause and abide by her paradoxical principles which may take your abilities to the next level. Pay attention and heed the warnings!

About Laura Empson

Laura EmpsonLaura Empson is an author, the Director of the Centre for Professional Service Firm and a senior researcher at Harvard Law School.

She spent more than 2 decades conducting various researches and case studies on professionalism and leadership.

“Leading Professionals PDF Summary”

Leading professionals ought to provide directions for other decision-makers, lawyers, managers, consultants but that isn’t a straightforward process.

Perhaps, avoiding the word – difficult would be the best because such claim can be misconstrued by those who divide matters into two categories: complicated and easy.

Having authority is one thing, knowing when and how to apply it, is an entirely enigmatic momentum. Why? – Because, professionals within an organization tend to possess distinctive features, which can jeopardize the communication in all layers.

In a democratic society, where opinions differ, enacting strict rules which control the behavior of those involved in the process is virtually impossible. Consensus as a tool starts to kick in; this organizational instrument sparks ideas and prompts people to commit themselves to the task, and come to an agreement with others if that’s necessary.

Without such outlooks and horizons, you can’t be regarded as a professional. It’s critical to be open-minded and willing to put the company’s interests above the personal gain. In efforts to align personal and professional goals, people lose their sense of self, so you don’t need to force any rapid conclusion.

According to Laura Empson, professional institutions or companies have to deal with two evidently energetic professionals:

  • Extensive autonomy – Professionals who would do anything to be in charge of their own operations and have an aversion towards monitoring and supervision.
  • Contingent authority – These group of professionals doesn’t mind having support from other leaders and rely on their partners.

Influencing and the ability to ask for better terms is becoming an integral part of the art of “Making Deals.” Leaders who can’t cope with pressure; can’t be labeled as goal-oriented professionals. In hopes of designing the perfect system that stimulates consensus, companies often change their internal policies.  

The standard procedures existing in every professional firm, give rise to a phenomenon named – plural leadership. As the name implies, it refers to a tricky situation that signifies how partnership develops into a new form of a joint command.

To put it briefly, this new form of authority takes the initiative to confront conventional and hierarchical decision-making and places emphasis on professional change.

Acting with such audacity takes more than just courage. The professional firms must be backed by all executives and those willing to invest in helping the management to solve complex organizational issues. All things said, leaders fly in the faces of 10 paradoxes:

  1. Autonomy and control” – It’s no secret that professionals love and appreciate autonomy. Nonetheless, those higher in the chain of command must at least supervise their activities, and finding the right balance is key. These professionals must be given a choice to willing accept a certain level of control for better organizational execution.
  2. Reluctance and ambition” – If you intend to lead and guide other members of the organization, you must not become one of those overly-ambitious leaders.
  3. Political and apolitical leadership” – Often times, professional organizations have political elements in their decision-making. Leaders need to possess specific skills, such as be able to talk smoothly and maintain influential craftiness to subside a storm within the ranks.
  4. Individual and collective interests” – In general, professionals in any company must protect their authority, but on the other side, they should take into account the interests of their partners. Nurturing these connections is vital for maintaining the stability of the organization.
  5. Harmony and conflict” – If your employees are deprived of a harmonious environment – productivity and efficiency will suffer. To avoid quarrels and growing tensions, leaders need to put themselves in the shoes of others to understand their perspective.
    Putting those tense feelings aside can give the organization the upper hand to withstand the competitiveness of the market.
  6. Insecurity and confidence” – Nobody likes insecure individuals! As a leader, you are obligated to help your co-workers and associates to build up that self-esteem and rise to the occasion.
  7. Commercial and professional priorities” – In some companies, a group of professionals may be in charge of large operations. These senior managers are inclined to agree that commercial profits are vital for maintaining the functionality of the company.
  8. Centralized power and distributed leadership” – There’s more than just physical evolution because a professional firm can also evolve in all matters. Power can swing from one executive to the other; departments may receive higher autonomy, and so forth. Leadership also can be distributed to various executives who showcased their readiness to carry out the operations.  
  9. Active and passive leadership” – Indeed, many great leaders act as observers. Their expertise and years of experience grant them the privilege of being spectators, who take drastic measures only in a given situation. Sometimes doing nothing, is in fact, doing everything. This is a great paradox that only a small group of leaders can digest. The proactive form is typical for the majority of managers, but that’s not the only practical approach.
  10. Ambiguity and clarity” – In theory, leaders are duty-bound to aid their base of disciples/followers/members/partners in times of trouble. This is especially true for matters that extend far beyond their level of competence. Ambiguous behavior is one of the most baffling paradox, and leaders in any professional firm must outline a plan to deal with such audacity.

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“Leading Professionals Quotes”

Senior professionals may choose to delegate authority to their elected leaders but reserve the right to undermine or remove them. Click To Tweet The assumption is that professionals who understand their clients’ business will be well qualified to lead their own. This inference is…no more than a good guess. Click To Tweet Political behavior among professionals… is not inherently wrong; it is an organizational fact of life. Click To Tweet Strong relationships between individual professionals and their clients are essential to the successful sale and delivery of professional services. Click To Tweet In a professional organization, the so-called greater good is simply the interests of the collective as defined by its leaders at a particular point in time. Click To Tweet

Our Critical Review

We rarely say this, but it seems like leadership in years to come will gradually transform from proactive into passive shape.

Genuine behavior inspired by the right and accurate information will serve as a tool for making that happen. This book is undoubtedly ahead of its time, and probably we will witness these changes in the foreseeable future.

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