Nicomachean Ethics PDF Summary

Nicomachean Ethics PDF SummaryWant to learn something more about ethics?

Then you’re at the right place!

With 12min, Aristotle and his most famous book on the subject: Nicomachean Ethics.

It’s the Dream Team.

Who Should Read “Nicomachean Ethics”? And Why?

If you need to read just one philosopher in your life, then it has to be either Plato or Aristotle.

And if you need to read just one book by the latter, then it has to be the Nicomachean Ethics.

So, who should read this book?

Everyone who has even the slightest interest in philosophy.

Or, for that matter, everyone who wants to become a better person.

About Aristotle

AristotleAristotle was an Ancient Greek philosopher, together with his teacher Plato, the most influential thinker in the history of Western civilization.

He studied under Plato in his Academy for two decades between the ages of 17 and 37, after which he left Athens to tutor Alexander the Great. Even though he was Plato’s best student, after Plato’s death, Aristotle shifted from Plato’s idealistic teachings to empiricism.

He contributed to numerous different fields – from physics to metaphysics, from logic to ethics, from biology to zoology, from politics to economics, from poetry to music – and almost every single thing he has written is still object of academic debate.

He also founded a Peripatetic school of philosophy at the Lyceum, where he also established a library of immense importance.

“Nicomachean Ethics PDF Summary”

The Nicomachean Ethics is Aristotle’s best-known work on ethics and, quite possibly, the most influential book on the subject ever written.

It consists of ten books – all of them originally written as separate scrolls – and is based on Aristotle’s notes from his lectures at the Lyceum, the ancient university founded by the great philosopher in Athens in 334 BCE.

The “Nicomachean” part of the title refers to Aristotle’s son Nicomachus, to whom (quite probably) the work was dedicated; it is also possible that he was the one who edited it. Some scholars, however, claim that the Nicomachus this work is dedicated to is actually Aristotle’s father, who was also called Nicomachus.

Be that as it may, Nicomachean ethics deals with a problem both Plato and Socrates were interested in – namely, how should men live their lives in the best possible manner.

According to Aristotle, Socrates had shown first that this is not a question that should be dealt with merely theoretically, but one which is more specifically a practical matter.

That’s why Nicomachean ethics not only explains what is good and why it is good, but also gives advice as to how one should live to consider his living here on earth good, respectable, and virtuous.

But – we’re running ahead of ourselves.

Let’s walk you through each of the ten books.

Book I

“If there is some end of the things we do, which we desire for its own sake, clearly this must be the good,” Aristotle writes at the beginning of the Nicomachean Ethics.

And then he asks: “Will not knowledge of it, then, have a great influence on life? Shall we not, like archers who have a mark to aim at, be more likely to hit upon what we should? If so, we must try, in outline at least, to determine what it is. “

So, that is the topic of the Nicomachean Ethics: to discover what’s the thing humans desire for its own sake and how should they act so as to most easily attain it.

After a lengthy analysis, Aristotle concludes that whatever we like to have – be it money, cars, women, football or sex (OK, he doesn’t use these examples per se) – we like it because it makes us happy.

However, as one can easily deduce, some of the things that make us happy, tend to make us unhappy afterward.

Why?

Simply put, because they are not good.

And what is good?

To quote Aristotle:

Human good turns out to be activity of soul in accordance with virtue, and if there are more than one virtue, in accordance with the best and most complete. But we must add “in a complete life.” For one swallow does not make a summer, nor does one day; and so too one day, or a short time, does not make a man blessed and happy.

Book II

So, to sum up, Aristotle says that many things can lead to temporary happiness, but only virtuous actions lead to a happy life. And since this is something everybody wants, then it’s necessary to discover what virtue means and how should one reach it.

In the second book, Aristotle points out that, just like a lyre-player, no matter how talented, must learn and practice to become a virtuoso, a man, no matter how naturally inclined towards virtuous actions, needs education to attain the proper, virtuous habits.

And then Aristotle lays out the simplest definition for virtue: treading the middle way between two extremes.

What does that mean?

It means that anything in excess or deficiency is bad; and that everything in just the proper amount is virtue.

Or to use a famous example:

Anyone can get angry — that is easy — or give or spend money; but to do this to the right person, to the right extent, at the right time, with the right motive, and in the right way, that is not for everyone, nor is it easy.

Book III

At the end of Book II, Aristotle lists many character virtues and starting with Book III, he analyzes many of them in-depth.

But first he explains, foreshadowing Sartre, that you’re responsible for almost everything you do, because you always have a choice not do it (Sartre would add: even if the latter leads to death).

If that is the case, then even ignorance – not knowing what is good – is not actually an excuse, because you always have a choice to learn.

So, more or less, Aristotle says that if you’re not, it’s your fault for not having read his book.

And then he proceeds to explanations of what he means when he says that we should tread the middle way.

The two examples he uses in this book are courage and temperance.

Courage, according to Aristotle, is the mean between fear and confidence; in excess, it leads to fearlessness and overconfidence, both of which are bad; if deficient, it leads to cowardness, which is also bad.

Temperance is the mean between pleasure and pain; in excess, it leads to wastefulness; in deficiency, it makes a man insensible.

Book IV

Book four deals with a second set of virtues, in four groups of two.

The first group deals with two very similar virtues: generosity and magnificence.

Generosity may, once again, lead to wastefulness if in excess, and to stinginess if lacking; magnificence leads to vulgarity and tastelessness when excessive, and to paltriness if not enough.

The second group of virtues are magnanimity and ambition.

Magnanimity is located between vanity (excess) and smallness of soul (deficiency), and ambition is located between, well, overambitiousness and lack of ambition. Sorry, guys, nobody has thought of better words for now.

The third group of virtues are gentleness and friendliness.

Too much of a gentleness leads to irritability, and not enough of it to spiritlessness (they really need to find better words); too much of friendliness leads to either flattery (if for own advantage) or obsequiousness (if for no purpose).

The final group of two virtues analyzed here are truthfulness and wittiness.

If you are more than truthful, you’re exaggerating and boastful; if you’re deficient in truthfulness, you suffer from a form of self-deprecation and self-irony. If you are more than witty, you’re a buffoon; if you’re less of it, you’re boorish.

Book V

Aristotle says that justice, the highest of virtues, deserves a whole book; which is why Book V deals with every single aspect of what it means to be a just person living in a just society.

Why should Aristotle deal with just societies in a book about ethics?

Because, as he explains, justice is not exactly a virtue for isolated individuals; it’s not anything in that case; justice can only be made sense of in a community.

Now, If you know anything about Plato and Aristotle – or about how much you liked your teachers in high-school – you already know that in describing his ideal community, Aristotle is, almost explicitly, criticizing Plato’s Republic.

Because, unlike Plato, Aristotle doesn’t think that a just society is a strict hierarchy ruled by a benevolent dictator, but something which is built around the values of equality, commensurability, and proportion.

Book VI

In Book VI, Aristotle enumerates the five types of stable states of the soul (hexis) which can be considered intellectual virtues:

#1. Art – making things in a way which can be explained;
#2. Knowledge – axiomatically graspable concept: “all knowledge seems to be teachable, and what is known is learnable.”
#3. Practical Judgmentjudgment used in making good decisions upon overall actions (when specific, it is art)
#4. Wisdom – a combination of common sense (nous) and knowledge; it only belongs to the wise; however, we don’t need it, since we have:
#5. Common sense – or intellect, it deals with unarticulated truths and is what helps us perfect our virtues.

Book VII

Here Aristotle discusses self-restraint.

If one is virtuous only when treading the middle road, then self-restraint is a very important value one must learn to acquire.

It is also something that must be furthered by the laws of a country, which means that the lawgivers should really understand the essence of not only pleasure and pain, but self-restraint as well.

The good news: self-restraint is not a vice, and can be taught.

In other words, practical guides for self-mastery are as old as time.

Book VIII

“Without friends,” writes Aristotle, “no one would want to live, even if he had all other goods.”

This is the reason why Books VIII and IX are dedicated to the topic of friendship.

There are three types of friendship, according to Aristotle: useful, pleasant, and complete.

The complete friendship is the one everybody should strive for – it is one in which friends are capable of seeing what is likable in each other.

Unequal friendships, on the other hand – whether between rulers and subjects, or dominant and submissive people – are no friendships, and unjust societies hinder the possibility for real friendships.

Book IX

Still on friendship.

If you’re in a bad one, then you’re probably expecting from the other person things that he or she cannot offer, and/or vice versa.

If that is the case, you’ll never be satisfied, and it’s better that you break off the bond as soon as possible.

Of course, you should, first of all, understand your self because your friend is actually your second self.

This is why it is all but impossible for a person to be happy without having friends; and why sad people can be cheered up by, you’ve guessed it, friends.

When you have a good friend, it’s like you’re talking to yourself.

Only kindly.

Book X

According to Aristotle’s final book of the Nicomachean Ethics, happiness is tightly linked with pleasure.

All beings – whether rational or irrational – instinctively tend toward pleasure and away from pain.

The only life worth living is the one in which you enjoy the right things in the right amounts – because, basically, that is what happiness is.

Key Lessons from “Nicomachean Ethics”

1.      Aristotle Says That Self-Help Books Are a Good Thing
2.      One Can Learn to Be Good
3.      The Golden Mean

Aristotle Says That Self-Help Books Are a Good Thing

You can think that you’re good, but unless you demonstrate your goodness through your deeds, nobody would believe you.

In other words, if you talk the talk but refuse to walk the walk, you’re the opposite of good: you’re a liar, and a hypocrite, and an altogether lousy person.

Analogously, according to Aristotle, there’s no point in merely theoretically analyzing what is good and what is virtuous; the point is teaching people how to be good.

Which is precisely what many self-help books are doing today.

We feel that Aristotle would have endorsed them.

One Can Learn to Be Good

The good news: you can learn to be a good person.

The bad news: it requires a lot of effort.

And don’t pat yourself on your shoulder thinking that not knowing that something is bad gives you an excuse for doing it; you can always learn, so this is always merely a temporary alibi.

No matter who you are.

The Golden Mean

If you need to take away one thing of the Nicomachean Ethics, then, by all means, let it be this one: treat the golden middle way.

Excesses and deficiencies destroy virtues, says Aristotle, which can only be found in moderation.

Too much courage leads to recklessness; too little of it to cowardice.

And this is true with all other virtues.

Like this summary? We’d like to invite you to download our free 12 min app for more amazing summaries and audiobooks.

“Nicomachean Ethics Quotes”

For the things we have to learn before we can do them, we learn by doing them. Click To Tweet Philosophy can make people sick. Click To Tweet The good of man is a working of the soul in the way of excellence in a complete life. Click To Tweet Freedom is obedience to self-formulated rules. Click To Tweet With the truth, all given facts harmonize; but with what is false, the truth soon hits a wrong note. Click To Tweet

Our Critical Review

It is difficult to exaggerate how revered and influential Aristotle’s Nicomachean Ethics has been throughout the history of philosophy.

Quite possibly, it may be the single most debated ethical work ever written.

Which renders our critical review all but obsolete.

www.pdf24.org    Take this summary with you and read anywhere! Download PDF:   

The Giving Tree PDF Summary

The Giving Tree PDF SummaryWell, the softness of this book made it a mark for critics and admirers alike to share their viewpoints.

We don’t prefer the term “book” since we believe it is more of a story which tries to put a broader perspective of inter-relationships into the spotlight.

It is also embellished with illustrations which paint an accurate image of how the plot intensifies.

Who Should Read “The Giving Tree”? And Why?

Firstly published in 1964, “The Giving Tree” rose to prominence due to its original motives. It remained Silverstein’s best work which was translated into numerous languages.

With that being said, we without any equivocation endorse this story and recommend it to the wider audience despite the generational differences.

Shel SilversteinAbout Shel Silverstein

Shel Silverstein was an American-born cartoonist, poet and a writer born at the height of the Great Depression in 1930.

His work will always remain etched into the hearts of his faithful audience.

“The Giving Tree PDF Summary”

When written, the book didn’t receive many admirations, since it was rejected due to various reasons. One editor at Simon & Schuster even claimed that the book is not cheerful for the kids, and simply not substantial for the grown-ups.

It wasn’t the flying start Shel had been hoping for.

Upon publishing, The Giving Tree received mixed recognitions, praises and often times – critics. Apparently, the main context had aroused controversy in terms of the interpretation of the storyline.

The narrative commences with a simple introduction of the main characters, but the emphasis falls on the relationship between a female tree and a boy.

The boy would come along and gather the leaves, make crowns and imagine of being a king of the dense forest. He would also play with the tree by climbing up and hanging on the branches.

The story continues by expressing the boy’s desires of eating the fruits (apples) from the tree. And when the boy got tired, he simply decided to rest in the shade.

Once the boy had its sleep, he would play hide-and-seek with the tree as they spend much of the time together.

The culmination of the plot rises to the surface as the boy grows older. The boy no more shares that innate desire to pick up leaves and eat apples; he is in need of things.

The tree gives him a proposition, to pick up the apples from the ground and those on the tree and sell them to make money.

And the boy started gathering the apples and putting them in a basket with an intention to sell them later.

The tree felt abandoned as the boy continued his routine.

One day, the tree asked the boy to climb up the trunk and swing a little bit, just like in the old days.

The boy replied that he is in need of a house to keep him warm. The tree allowed the boy to cut off some of the branches and build a beautiful house. And that will eventually make him happy.

So the boy did like he was told!

The next time the tree laid eyes upon the boy, it felt immense happiness. The boy, however, felt no urge to play with the tree and wanted a boat to sail away.

The tree told the boy to cut off its trunk and build a boat, that will make him happy. After a long time, the boy returned and saw the heartbroken tree with nothing left to give.

My apples are gone
My teeth are too weak for apples – said the boy
My branches are gone, you cannot swing on them
I am too old to swing on branches – said the boy.
My trunk is gone, you cannot climb
I am too tired to climb – said the boy.

I just want a place to sit and rest. The tree invited the boy to rest, and it was happy.

Key Lessons from “The Giving Tree”

1.      The power of gratitude
2.      Break out from the bubble of greed
3.      Be careful what you wish for

The power of gratitude

Every now and then, people are not happy with the life they have, and they are in full pursuit for more. It is almost a global phenomenon that keeps us miserable for the entire life-span.

Some people have never once expressed glimpses of thankfulness, and that is why gratitude must emerge.

Break out from the bubble of greed

It comes as no surprise that is not easy to tackle that unquenchable hunger. We are taught that people must always struggle in order to battle through due to lack of money or status.

For precisely that reason, one must figure out a way to shift its mindset and adopt a more open approach.

Be careful what you wish for

Sometimes the things you crave so deeply, are the things that are going to bring you a lot of suffering. Take lottery-winners, for example; there are many suicidal cases which are a direct consequence of winning the lottery.

Stay with both feet on your ground and ponder about your decisions!

Like this summary? We’d Like to invite you to download our free 12 min app, for more amazing summaries and audiobooks.

Our Critical Review

We can say that this is one of the most thought-provoking and mindful stories we have ever bump into. It truly reflects people’s attitude toward life and unravels the exact causes leading to suffering.

It stands to reason why we believe it will benefit you regardless of your age or position.

www.pdf24.org    Take this summary with you and read anywhere! Download PDF:   

The Brothers Karamazov Summary

The Brothers Karamаzov SummaryThere aren’t many novelists more famous or discussed than Fyodor M. Dostoevsky.

And there is one novel in his oeuvre – completed just four months before his death – that stands out:

The Brothers Karamazov.

Who Should Read “The Brothers Karamazov”? And Why?

Let us put it this way: if you had to read only ten novels in your life, The Brothers Karamazov should undoubtedly be among them.

See “Our Critical Review” section for more.

Or trust our word and read this book as soon as you find the time.

Fyodor M. Dostoevsky Biography

Fyodor M. DostoevskyFyodor M. Dostoevsky was a Russian writer, one of the masters of the psychological novel and, according to many, one of the very greatest novelists in the history of literature.

Dostoevsky lived somewhat chaotic life, which, at one point, resulted in a death sentence, commuted at the very last second. The experience scarred Dostoevsky for life, and even though at times he had to beg for money – most of which he had the habit of squandering on gambling – he never lost his Orthodox Christian faith.

He wrote 17 short stories, 3 novellas, and 11 novels; each of them has been analyzed in detail by literary critics and theorists from all over the world.

However, three of his novels are widely considered to be not only part of the European Literary Canon, but also its very center: Crime and Punishment, The Idiot, and The Brothers Karamazov.

Dostoevsky influenced so many prominent writers and thinkers that even a long list of them would be unfair to some of the greatest novelists of the 20th century.

Plot

Set in 19th-century Russia, The Brothers Karamazov is a philosophical novel which explores the interrelation between God, free will, and ethics through the lives of four half-brothers, each one more memorable than the next.

It is, indeed, one of those “once-in-a-century” masterworks which are bound to touch the hearts of many readers and even change the minds of many others.

At about 1,000 pages, The Brothers Karamazov is a rather long work, and there are quite a few characters in it; since, at times, our summary may seem a bit difficult for you to follow, we prepared for you a simplified genealogical table of the main characters in the novel.

Return to it every time you have troubles navigating yourself in the story.

The Brothers Karamаzov PDF

Book One: A Nice Little Family

The first book of The Brothers Karamazov introduces the Karamazov family.

Here we learn many things about Fyodor Pavlovich Karamazov, the 55-year-old head of the family. He is a parasite, utterly uninterested about the fate of his sons, and he has at least three of them.

Dmitri Karamazov, aka Mitya, is his eldest son, the only child of his marriage with Adelaida Ivanovna Miusov. He is engaged to be married to Katerina Ivanovna Verkhovtseva, aka Katya, but openly expresses his admiration for Agrafena Alexandrovna Svetlova, aka Grushenka. Strangely enough, Fyodor too has some lustful feelings for Grushenka.

Ivan Karamazov, at 24, is Fyodor’s middle son, the first from his marriage with Sofia Ivanovna. He has some feelings for Katya, his half-brother’s fiancée, and is an atheist.

Alexei Karamazov, aka Alyosha, is the youngest of the three brothers (20 years old), and the second child of Fyodor’s second marriage. Contrary to Ivan, Alexei is a novice in a local Russian Orthodox monastery, a member of a somewhat mysterious religious order of Elders.

Book Two: An Inappropriate Gathering

Dmitri is similar to his father: both spend large amounts of money on earthly pleasures; and, at the beginning of the novel, Dmitri comes back to his birth house in search of some inheritance he believes his father is withholding from him.

So as to solve the dispute, in the second book, the Karamazovs visit a local monastery where Father Zosima, the Elder, Alyosha’s teacher, can act as a sort of a spiritual mediator.

Let’s just say, for all his effort, he doesn’t do a good job; at the end, the conflict between Dmitri and Fyodor is only made worse.

Book Three: Sensualists

Here we learn that the conflict over the inheritance isn’t the only one Dmitri and Fyodor have between them.

As we noted above, they are both passionately in love with the same person, the 22-year-old Grushenka.

So it comes as no wonder that in Book Three, Dmitri bursts into the house of his father, assaults Fyodor, and threatens to come back and kill him at some point in the future.

The third book also introduces Pavel Smerdyakov, a servant at Fyodor’s house but also someone everybody believes to be Fyodor’s illegitimate child by a mute woman of the street who died in childbirth.

Everybody knew her as “Reeking Lizaveta” which is why Pavel’s surname is Smerdyakov: that is Russian for Reeking.

Pavel was raised by Fyodor’s servant Grigory Vasilievich Kutuzov and his wife Marfa and has spent all of his life working as Fyodor’s cook and lackey.

He is also an epileptic whose pretty worrisome childhood habits include one of collecting stray cats and hanging them.

Book Four: Lacerations/Strains

Book four introduces the side story of the Snegiryov family.

It begins with Alyosha noticing a group of schoolboys throwing rocks at a boy whose name, we learn, is Ilyusha. Alyosha helps him, but Ilyusha bites his finger.

The reason?

He is the son of a former staff-captain who was once humiliated by Dmitri in a bar fight.

Learning of the many problems the Snegiryov family is in, Alyosha tries to give some money to Ilyusha’s father, both to help his ailing wife and as an apology for the behavior of his brother.

Out of pride, Snegiryov eventually refuses the money.

Book Five: Pro and Contra

Ivan meets Alyosha at a restaurant and Dostoevsky uses this meeting to pit one against other their profoundly incompatible and conflicting philosophies.

Ivan explains his nihilistic atheism to his brother, and, in one of the most famous chapters ever written, “The Grand Inquisitor,” recounts a supposed poem of his (though there are almost no verses) which describes the meeting of Jesus and a leader of the Spanish Inquisition in 15th-century Seville.

As expected – even though nobody expects the Spanish Inquisition – the Grand Inquisitor puts Jesus in jail, and asks him:

Why shouldst Thou now return, to impede us in our work? For Thou hast come but for that only, and Thou knowest it well. But art Thou as well aware of what awaits Thee in the morning? I do not know, nor do I care to know who thou mayest be: be it Thou or only thine image, to-morrow I will condemn and burn Thee on the stake, as the most wicked of all the heretics; and that same people, who to-day were kissing Thy feet, to-morrow at one bend of my finger, will rush to add fuel to Thy funeral pile… Wert Thou aware of this?

However, after the Grand Inquisitor makes his argument that it’s all Jesus’ fault for he should not have given men free will, Jesus “bends towards him and softly kisses the bloodless, four-score and-ten-year-old lips.”

The Grand Inquisitor shudders, and then “goes to the door, opens it, and addressing Jesus, ‘Go,’ he says, ‘go, and return no more.”

Even though the kiss burns inside the Inquisitor’s heart, “the old man remains firm in his own ideas and unbelief.”

After hearing the story, suddenly, Alyosha goes to Ivan kisses his brother on the lips.

Ivan is stunned and shouts with delight.

Book Six: The Russian Monk

This book deals almost exclusively with Father Zosima, relating his life from his rebellious youth to his death, as he lies on the brink of it in his cell.

We learn that he found God in the middle of a duel, and that, ever since he has served Him and humanity.

His religious philosophy is much akin to Donne’s “no man is an island” or Martin Luther King’s “inescapable network of mutuality.”

Namely, we all sin, but all of our sins are interrelated; so, redemption starts at the moment one finds the courage to forgive other people’s sins, for which he is almost as responsible as for his own.

Book Seven: Alyosha

After the death of Zosima, his body starts decomposing.

A fact of life, you’d think, but, to Alyosha and almost everybody who had ever known or respected Zosima, nothing short of the Apocalypse.

You see, it is a commonly held belief that the bodies of saints are incorrupt and, thus, after death, they do not decompose.

However, Zosima’s starts the process almost immediately, and after a single day, the smell it exudes is unbearable.

This visibly and genuinely shakes Alyosha’s beliefs.

A companion of his named Rakitin uses Alyosha’s vulnerability to set up a meeting between him and Grushenka.

However, the joke’s on him, because it is through this meeting that Alyosha finds the thing he had temporarily lost: profound faith.

Moreover, upon her discussion with him, Grushenka also starts thinking of spiritual redemption and sees in Alyosha someone who may help her find this path; because, for once, he doesn’t care about her body, but about her soul.

The two become close friends.

The book ends with Alyosha kissing the earth and convulsively crying, probably mirroring the last thing Father Zosima did before leaving his earthly body.

Book Eight: Mitya

In Book Eight, we find out that Dmitri owes money to his fiancée Katerina, and that he fears that Grushenka will choose his father over him because of his lack of money.

This is the reason why he was so interested in his father’s inheritance in the first place, and why, in this book, he goes to a neighboring town.

However, the promise of a business deal there fails, and when he returns back, he discovers that Grushenka is not where she is supposed to be.

He immediately goes to his father’s house, with a brass pestle in his hand.

The next thing we know, he’s hitting the servant Gregory in his head with the pestle, and running away from Fyodor’s house in mad haste.

He’s all covered in blood, and there’s a pile of money in his hand.

To make matters worse, next he finds out that Grushenka is, in fact, with an ex-lover of her. Dmitri heads to where they are supposed to be, planning to humiliate Grushenka and kill himself the next morning.

However, there he learns that Grushenka is in love with him.

As soon as they start making plans to marry, the policemen arrive and arrest Dmitri on suspicion that he has murdered Fyodor.

Book Nine: The Preliminary Investigation

Even though Dmitri maintains that he has nothing to do with his father’s death, all of the evidence points to him.

First of all, everybody knows of the conflict between the two.

Secondly, the money Fyodor had set aside for Grushenka is missing, and Dmitri was seen running bloodstained with thousands of rubles in his hand soon after Fyodor’s murder.

Thirdly, Dmitri needed money – both because of his debt to Katerina and because of his planned marriage with Grushenka.

And finally, there was no one else in the house except for Dmitri and Pavel, and the latter had an epileptic seizure which should have rendered him incapable to even attack, let alone kill Fyodor.

You can’t blame the police for formally charging Dmitri with patricide and locking him up in prison while awaiting trial.

Book Ten: Boys

Now, we’re back to the side story.

In addition to being informed that Ilyusha’s sickness has worsened and that he will probably not recover, we are also introduced to one of the boys who, back in Book Four, threw stones at Ilyusha: Kolya Krasotkin.

It seems that the reason for the scuffle between the two was Ilyusha’s decision to accept a suggestion by Smerdyakov and feed a dog with a loaf of bread in which he had stuck a sharp pin.

Through Alyosha’s intervention, Kolya and the other schoolboys gradually reconcile with Ilyusha and join him at his bedside.

Here, Kolya shares his socialistic, nihilistic, atheist theories with Alyosha, whose words strike a chord with him; by the end of this book, Kolya starts reassessing his beliefs.

Book Eleven: Brother Ivan Fyodorovich

Brother Ivan Fyodorovich Karamazov, one of the most memorable characters in the history of world literature, slowly descends into madness.

During the course of Book Eleven, he has three meetings with Smerdyakov, the last one of which is the most striking one.

Namely, Smerdyakov confesses to Ivan that he was the one who had murdered Fyodor and stolen his money, after faking an epileptic seizure; he even presents the stolen money as evidence.

Ivan is stunned to hear this, but Smerdyakov is even more surprised at Ivan’s disbelief.

As far as Smerdyakov is concerned, Ivan is at least as responsible for the murder as himself, because he had told him when he would be leaving the house and because he made him believe that in a world without God everything is permitted.

Book Eleven ends with Ivan hallucinating a visitation from the devil, who torments and taunts him by mocking his beliefs.

It is in this condition that Alyosha finds him and informs him that Smerdyakov has committed suicide.

Book Twelve: A Judicial Error

Book Twelve is practically a courtroom drama, detailing the trial of Dmitri Karamazov.

As one would expect, the part which attracts the most attention at the trial is the love triangle between Dmitri, Grushenka, and Fyodor.

Another thing which attracts attention is Ivan, who recounts his final meeting with Smerdyakov and tells of his confession.

Nobody believes him: he is dragged away from the courtroom after his madness takes hold of him.

Katerina – who, by this time, has developed feelings for Ivan – links Ivan’s madness with her supposed love for Dmitri.

So, she presents to the court a letter in which Dmitri says that he would kill Fyodor.

You know the verdict:

Guilty.

The Brothers Karamazov Epilogue

In the “Epilogue” to The Brothers Karamazov, we learn that the brothers are planning to help Dmitri – who they know is not guilty – escape from his sentence of 20 years of labor in Siberia.

We also learn that Dmitri is, in the meantime, in hospital, recovering from an illness and waiting to be taken away.

He begs to be visited by Katerina, who eventually does that.

Dmitri uses the occasion to apologize to her for all the pain he has caused her; Katerina, in turn, apologizes for the letter she had presented during the trial.

They part agreeing to love each other until their deaths – even though they are in love with different people at the moment.

In the meantime, Ilyusha dies, and at this funeral, Alyosha gives a speech to his friends from school. In the speech, he promises to remember each and every one of them and implores them to remember Ilyusha in much the same manner.

Moreover, he requests from them to remember, until it is possible, the beauty of that very moment, at the stone of Ilyusha, when everybody was together and when they all loved each other.

In tears, the children agree to do that and, after joining hands, they all return to the house of Snegiryov.

There, they hold a funeral dinner, during which everybody chants: “Hurrah for Karamazov! Hurrah for Karamazov!”

Like this summary? We’d like to invite you to download our free 12 min app for more amazing summaries and audiobooks.

“The Brothers Karamazov Summary Quotes”

The awful thing is that beauty is mysterious as well as terrible. God and the devil are fighting there, and the battlefield is the heart of man. Click To Tweet I can see the sun, but even if I cannot see the sun, I know that it exists. And to know that the sun is there - that is living. Click To Tweet I think the devil doesn't exist, but man has created him, he has created him in his own image and likeness. Click To Tweet Besides, nowadays, almost all capable people are terribly afraid of being ridiculous, and are miserable because of it. Click To Tweet What is hell? I maintain that it is the suffering of being unable to love. Click To Tweet

Our Critical Review

Albert Einstein thought that The Brothers Karamazov was “the supreme summit of all literature.” Sigmund Freud believed that it is “the most magnificent novel ever written.” Ludwig Wittgenstein read it “so often he knew whole passages of it by heart.” He even brought it with him to the front.

Believe us – we can go on.

But we don’t think there’s any need to do that.

Simply put, The Brothers Karamazov is one of the greatest achievements in world literature.

www.pdf24.org    Take this summary with you and read anywhere! Download PDF:   

21 Lessons for the 21st Century PDF Summary

21 Lessons for the 21st Century PDF SummaryFeeling unprepared for what lies ahead?

Yuval Noah Harari is here to teach you

21 Lessons for the 21st Century.

Who Should Read “21 Lessons for the 21st Century”? And Why?

If you like Harari’s previous two books, Sapiens and Homo Deus, there’s no reason not to like this one too.

You know that he is capable of offering new perspectives and fresh insights into familiar topics, and this book proves this yet again.

Whether it’s history, politics, technology or biology – Harari knows just enough to paint the larger picture, “smashing together unexpected ideas into dazzling observations.”

A great gift for big-picture thinkers.

About Yuval Noah Harari

Yuval Noah HarariYuval Noah Harari is an Israeli historian, specializing in macro-historical processes and the history of war; he is a professor of history at the Hebrew University of Jerusalem, and the author of three bestsellers.

Harari’s first three books were published in relative obscurity though received acclaim among war historians: Renaissance Military Memoirs: War, History and Identity, 1450–1600, Special Operations in the Age of Chivalry, 1100–1550, and The Ultimate Experience: Battlefield Revelations and the Making of Modern War Culture, 1450–2000.

Influenced by Jared Diamond’s Guns, Germs, and Steel, and published in 2014, Harari’s fourth book, Sapiens, a sketch of the history of humankind, made him an international intellectual superstar; Homo Deus was written as a sequel to Sapiens, and 21 Lessons for the 21st Century revisits some of the ideas analyzed in these two books.

Find out more at https://www.ynharari.com/.

“21 Lessons for the 21st Century PDF Summary”

21 Lessons for the 21st Century is, as suggested by its very title and described in a Guardian review, “a loose collection of themed essays, many of which build on articles for the New York Times, Bloomberg and elsewhere.”

Harari has chosen to group these into five parts, each of which includes a few (three, four or five) essays on different topics.

Part I: The Technological Challenge

The first part of Harari’s book consists of four chapters, covering the topics of disillusionment, work, liberty, and equality.

The gist of it is stated in the subtitle of the main chapter:

Humankind is losing faith in the liberal story that dominated global politics in recent decades, exactly when the merger of biotech and infotech confronts us with the biggest challenges humankind has ever encountered.

And the first four lessons are:

#1. The end of history has been postponed
#2. When you grow up, you might not have a job
#3. Big Data is watching you
#4. Those who own the data own the future

Harari is interested here into how and to what extent computer technology is disrupting almost every single sphere of our existence.

His main point is that up to recently, we used computers and robots to automatize some mechanical processes. And that was not bad at all.

However, we’re at a stage when automating cognitive processes is not anymore just a possibility, but also an inevitable part of the future.

Modern neuroscience has all but confirmed what we’ve feared for quite some time – namely, that even our brains maybe just machines. Exceptionally complex, but machines nevertheless.

And if that is the case, not much time will pass before we build a God-Brain, a supercomputer which will know much more than us.

In that world, human intuition will have no value whatsoever, and all important decisions will be made by AI.

Don’t believe us?

Just remember that back in the 1990s, nobody believed that computers will ever beat a human at chess. Nowadays, no chess player is capable of beating a computer. In fact, now computers are teaching humans to play chess.

So, prepare for a world ruled by AI.

Harari’s serious.

Part II: The Political Challenge

The second part of Harari’s book deals with the political climate of the 21st century, exploring the nature of present-day communities, civilizations, nationalism, religion, and immigration.

Once again, the main lesson is chilling:

The merger of infotech and biotech threatens the core modern values of liberty and equality. Any solution to the technological challenge has to involve global cooperation. But nationalism, religion and culture divide humankind into hostile camps and make it very difficult to cooperate on a global level.

The subtitles of the five essays which comprise this chapter say a lot by themselves.

#5. Humans have bodies
#6. There is just one civilization in the world
#7. Global problems need global answers
#8. God now serves the nation
#9. Some cultures might be better than others

To understand Harari’s analyses and opinions from this very important section of the book, you must first go back to Samuel Huntington and his “clash of civilizations” thesis, according to which, humankind “has always been divided into diverse civilizations whose members view the world in irreconcilable ways.”

In other words, the Western liberals and the Eastern Muslims are as different from each other as wolves and bears. “These incompatible world views make conflicts between civilizations inevitable… and only the fittest have survived to tell the tale.”

The very existence of such cross-cultural creations such as the European Union is evidence enough that this thesis is misleading. However, the current state of affairs unravels the dualistic existence of the modern world.

On one side, the great issues of this century – such as, for example, climate change and nuclear weapons – require a global community; on the other, immigration and nationalism form the basis of the defense mechanism of those threatened by globalization.

Is there a way out?

Read ahead!

Part III: Despair and Hope

The five essays which comprise the third part of Harari’s book try to answer some of the questions posited in the first two parts of 21 Lessons for the 21st Century.

Aptly titled, the “Despair and Hope” chapter treats – in five essays – subjects such as terrorism, war, humility, god, and secularism, and ultimately boils down to this:

Though the challenges are unprecedented, and though the disagreements are intense, humankind can rise to the occasion if we keep our fears under control and be a bit more humble about our views.

#10. Don’t panic
#11. Never underestimate human stupidity
#12. You are not the center of the world
#13. Don’t take the name of God in vain
#14. Acknowledge your shadow

As far as Harari is concerned, the best way a human being can keep its fears under control and be a bit more humble about his or her views is secularism, something which “can provide us with all the values we need.”

Unlike dogmatic stories – political or religious – secularism presupposes doubt and critical mindset, as well as a coherent set of values, such as equality, compassion, freedom, truth, courage, and responsibility.

It also allows us to make these kinds of analyses.

During the past 17 years – meaning: since the 9/11 attacks – no more than 50 people are killed by terrorists in the European Union on a yearly basis. During that same period, 80,000 Europeans have died in traffic accidents.

So why are we talking so much about terrorism?

Simply put, because we’re stupid and we’re playing the game terrorists want us to play.

They are proverbially nothing more than flies on the bulls in a china shop. Unable to cause much damage themselves, they merely create a buzz so that the bulls cause it in their stead.

Part IV: Truth

If you ask us, this fourth part may be the most important one of the whole book, encompassing four enlightening essays on ignorance, justice, post-truth and science fiction.

The main lesson:

If you feel overwhelmed and confused by the global predicament, you are on the right track. Global processes have become too complicated for any single person to understand. How then can you know the truth about the world, and avoid falling victim to propaganda and misinformation?

The four sub-lessons:

#15. You know less than you think
#16. Our sense of justice might be out of date
#17. Some fake news lasts forever
#18. The future is not what you see in the movies

Harari’s starting point is one he has already analyzed in detail in Sapiens. Namely, that much of what we do and have accomplished is the result of our capacity to believe in fictions.

Comparing religion to what Donald Trump named “fake news,” Harari notes sarcastically that, “when a thousand people believe some made-up story for one month, that’s fake news. When a billion people believe it for a thousand years, that’s a religion, and we are admonished not to call it fake news in order not to hurt the feelings of the faithful (or incur their wrath).”

The point is simple: it is difficult nowadays to distinguish between facts and fiction, because every single aspect of our existence is so intricate and complex that not many people are able to understand it.

Embracing our ignorance is the only road towards salvation.

Because you’re helping nobody if you are talking about the war in Ukraine or climate change even though you are not that interested into politics and don’t know a single thing about meteorology.

Part V: Resilience

The fifth part of Harari’s book is the shortest one, comprising only three essays on education, meaning, and meditation.

And instead of a lesson, it is framed by a very thought-provoking question:

How do you live in an age of bewilderment, when the old stories have collapsed, and no new story has yet emerged to replace them?

The final three lessons are also pretty short:

#19. Change is the only constant
#20. Life is not a story
#21. Just observe

What lies beneath them is an exploration of Harari’s personal understanding of how should one act in this age of bewilderment.

“Having criticized so many stories, religions and ideologies,” he writes, “it is only fair that I put myself in the firing line too, and explain how somebody so skeptical can still manage to wake up cheerful in the morning.”

Completely aware of the fact that what works for him might not work for everybody, Harari shares his love of meditation and advocates it as an antidote to the chaotic world of today.

In his eyes, there are no more over-arching stories to guide us through our day, but there have always been – and always will be – feelings that define our experience.

And they stream through us.

And it’s about time that we get to know them.

Our systems of education should mirror this thirst for self-discovery and teach us to critically analyze the world instead of merely teaching us to memorize facts and trivial data.

The man of the future is the Skeptic, an always curious Socrates aware of his ignorance and ready to get to the bottom of it.

Key Lessons from “21 Lessons for the 21st Century”

1.      The World Is Changing Faster Than Ever, and We’re Failing to Acknowledge This
2.      The Age of Bewilderment: Do We Have a Story?
3.      The 22nd Lesson: Be a Socrates

The World Is Changing Faster Than Ever, and We’re Failing to Acknowledge This

21 Lessons for the 21st Century tries to make sense of many political, social, and technological changes humankind faces at the moment.

In the opinion of Harari, many of these changes are as inevitable as death and taxes, and yet very few people acknowledge that they are happening.

For example, automation all but guarantees a very recent future in which many people will be left without jobs, and, for some reason, neither Trump nor Hillary Clinton discussed this problem during the 2016 presidential campaign.

What they chose to talk about most was, say, terrorism, even though, essentially, this is basically unimportant topic and is, in fact, what terrorists want to achieve.

They are much more marginal than hundreds of groups of people, and yet, fighting against terrorism is the focus of American – nay, world – foreign policy ever since September 11.

In the meantime, Facebook has gathered data of just about everybody on the planet, automated cars are on the verge of eliminating the need of human drivers altogether, and religion has stopped being an important part of the lives of most Europeans.

So why are we still talking about free will, open jobs, and God?

The Age of Bewilderment: Do We Have a Story?

As stated above, the subtitle of the fifth part of Harari’s book posits a very important question: “How do you live in an age of bewilderment, when the old stories have collapsed, and no new story has yet emerged to replace them?”

As Harari explained all too well in Sapiens, our species exists precisely because of these stories, fiction being “among the most effective tools in humanity’s toolkit.”

Everything – from money to religion to laws – is, in its essence, a big lie; but since these lies come with a story, and we are storytelling chimpanzees by our very nature, we’ve chosen to believe them.

And we’ve made a good choice, since this has helped us create communities and civilization itself.

However, at present, we have a fairly serious problem: a large number of people are uninterested in believing these stories.

Considering the fact that some of them – be that fascism or communism, nationalism or almost every single religion – have wreaked havoc on the world for millennia, this, according to Harari, may not be such a bad thing after all.

“So,” he notes something Jordan Peterson would probably sign as well, “if you want to know the truth about the universe, about the meaning of life, and about your own identity, the best place to start is by observing suffering and exploring what it is.”

“The answer is not a story,” he adds.

The 22nd Lesson: Be a Socrates

So, what is it?

Of course, Harari’s book doesn’t include a 22nd lesson; however, inspired by the Guardian review quoted at the very beginning of our summary, we felt compelled to add it, meshing a few of Harari’s insights into one very actionable advice.

And we feel that it’s good if we start explaining Harari’s point by quoting this passage from the 18th chapter of the book:

Unlike the creators of The Matrix and The Truman Show, Huxley doubted the possibility of escape, because he questioned whether there was anybody to make the escape.
Since your brain and your ‘self’ are part of the matrix, to escape the matrix you must escape your self. That, however, is a possibility worth exploring. Escaping the narrow definition of self might well become a necessary survival skill in the twenty-first century.

In other words, we are our brains and it is impossible for us to escape them.

So, in order to not be brainwashed, doubt everything!

Admit your ignorance before yourself and be skeptical.

Listen to each and every story – coming from many different people – and try to find cracks as often as you can.

Understand your mind before the algorithms of tomorrow start making your mind up for you.

Contemplate, reflect, ruminate, muse, meditate.

You know, be a Socrates.

Like this summary? We’d like to invite you to download our free 12 min app for more amazing summaries and audiobooks.

“21 Lessons for the 21st Century Quotes”

In a world deluged by irrelevant information, clarity is power. Click To Tweet Questions you cannot answer are usually far better for you than answers you cannot question. Click To Tweet Morality doesn’t mean ‘following divine commands’. It means ‘reducing suffering’. Hence in order to act morally, you don’t need to believe in any myth or story. You just need to develop a deep appreciation of suffering. Click To Tweet Silence isn’t neutrality; it is supporting the status-quo. Click To Tweet Humans think in stories rather than in facts, numbers, or equations, and the simpler the story, the better. Click To Tweet

Our Critical Review

If we are perfectly honest, Harari is better at detecting the problems humankind is facing at the moment than offering appropriate solutions, so the title of his newest book may be a bit misleading.

In addition, 21 Lessons for the 21st Century recycles many of his past ideas, so don’t expect anything revolutionary here.

Even so, we think that Harari’s book feels like a breath of fresh air in an intellectual world where many people seem to know more than they do and many others predict the apocalypse without even understanding that this is the same as shouting fire in a crowdy theatre.

At least he’s also saying “don’t panic.”

www.pdf24.org    Take this summary with you and read anywhere! Download PDF:   

Codependent No More PDF Summary

Codependent No More PDF SummaryHow to Stop Controlling Others and Start Caring for Yourself

Published in 1986, this book quickly gained headlines!

It tries to address the endless struggle of a group of people who are not in the loop.

It accentuates the need for combative attitude in given occasions in order to tackle the necessity for perpetual dependency.

Are you codependent or not, is yet to be discovered!

Who Should Read “Codependent No More”? And Why?

As you might know, we all share the same attachment to people or things. The problem is aroused when we fail to put our well-being in the spotlight and prefer the underdog status.

It seems like “Codependent No More” as a book, attempts to unpuzzle the mystery behind this phenomenon!

As such, we feel that people with the slightest doubt of dependency on something should read it!

Melody BeattieAbout Melody Beattie

Melody Beattie (1948) is hailed as one of America’s finest self-help female writers of all time.

Her expertise in codependent relationships has helped her to reach the hearts of those facing those challenges.

“Codependent No More PDF Summary”

Melody recalls her first encounter with the very idea of codependence in the sixties. At that time, people at the mercy of others were not referred to as codependents. The same approach applied to drug and alcohol abusers who were later labeled as chemically dependent.

It seems strange that even if you are not privy to the terminology used, you can somewhat easily spot these codependents.

As the name actually implies, it covers a wide spectrum of people who run through life mostly addicted to other people and sometimes “things.” We’ll try to keep our focus on the people part and find out what causes this obsession to come about.

People falling into this broad category are very precise in their overall perspective regarding life. They exhibit insecure submissiveness and almost always place emphasis on the feelings.

They ruminate on their decisions made through the course of life and ponder excessively whether something should have been done differently or not.

The idea of unacceptance fuels this excessive need for self-analysis and dependence. This group sometimes go as far as manipulating the system in order to execute certain tasks.

Melody addresses the problems of this group, and how sometimes they struggled to separate truth from lies.

Before we take things a step further, let’s try to understand codependency.

There are as many definitions as they are stars in the sky. To some degree, they all endeavor to unravel the same ideology and point out what happens in the aftermath of this revelation.

On the inside, codependents have this innate urge to ingratiate themselves with the society and are often portrayed as benevolent and kind. As stated in the book, codependency can be construed as a disease due to its progressive nature.

As a response, some early symptoms may crop up which on the long-run can give new impetus to depression, isolation, suicidal urges, etc.

Nowadays, people see this type of disease with different eyes, often peered through the fog of delusion.

The self-destructive inclinations must be met with an equally powerful thrust which can tip the balance in favor of the codependent. So, who will be the instigator of this change? As a matter of fact, what foreshadows a full-scale alteration?

Melody believes that emotional, mental, and spiritual health can never be taught. The only thing you can do actually is to embolden a person or encourage it to take certain actions.

It comes as no surprise to anyone that people love to live in happiness and bliss, but that’s often easier said than done.

Codependents may:

  • Think that they are responsible for the feelings of the other person. This sense of liability emerges in various shapes and sizes through thoughts, actions, wants, deeds, you name it.
  • Feel overwhelming anxiety and stir up self-pity when the problem lies within the other person.
  • Anticipate the wants and desires of their close circle.
  • Wonder why other people don’t do likewise.
  • Attempt to prefer the well-being of others over themselves.
  • Feel no hesitation to vent their anger and rage about injustices done to others but shy away from applying that same logic in circumstances that cause disturbance to them.
  • Feel safe and secure when they are giving rather than receiving.
  • Feel shaky when someone takes care of them.
  • Feel disappointed because people don’t act with the same passion toward them.
  • Find themselves attracted to a needy group of individuals.
  • Go through boredom and a sense of worthiness which induces a personal crisis.
  • Leave behind something they love to do in order to satisfy others.

Codependents tend to:

  • Have a dysfunctional, aggressive family background.
  • Deny any collective responsibility for their emotional and mental status.
  • Put the blame onto themselves regardless of whether that’s true or not.
  • Be hard on themselves with regards to their physical, mental, emotional appearance.
  • Fly off the handle every once in a while, and take a defensive stance when others believe that codependents should embrace a different standpoint.
  • Double-check or completely disregard compliments lavished upon them.
  • Slump in deep dejection due to lack of praise.
  • Feel no connection to the world.
  • Think that they are not worthy of anything, and merit no praise whatsoever.
  • Feel insecure and often guilty when it comes to spending money on their basic needs or doing some other stuff for their Intrinsic pleasure.
  • Dread the possibility of rejection.
  • Take life too personally and everything flowing in it.
  • Have the victimhood ingrained in them as they are an easy mark for any form of abuse?
  • Act and portray themselves as victims.
  • Don’t believe in their ability.
  • Be skeptical about their prowess and are afraid to take risks.

The author clearly states that the preceding checklist doesn’t have all the necessary features, but it is a good starting point. Codependents ruminate on a lot of things, like most other people, but there’s a difference in traits which to some degree can assess a person’s codependency inclinations.

This is not an accurate portrayal of a codependent individual, and it doesn’t depict the individuality each person possesses.

It’s merely a profile that can help us dispel doubts regarding the urges of these people.

This leads us to the next revelation that codependents are not attached solely to people but to the environmental turmoil, as well. They are somewhat compelled to put the feelings of others above theirs with total disregard to the ramifications.

Attachment is a problem in itself; you don’t need anything extra burden to describe it as a real bottleneck.

It’s like being caught up in a fishing net and imprisoned, sometimes even unaware of your sentencing. Obsession with another human being or situation is also another way to put it or phrase it.

So, how to spot these individuals?

Truthfully, some cues can be seen from a mile away.

Melody knuckles down to the triangle comprised of three main roles: rescuer, persecutor, and victim. The flexibility in this process sustained by the role-changing and other emotional inconsistencies.

Sometimes, when we take care of our beloved ones, we put our basic needs and interests aside. This behavior may give birth to some destructive inner patterns, and put the entire life on hold. It’s a path you wouldn’t want to take.

Don’t remain a victim, because caretaking is one form of oppression. Nobody is saying that you shouldn’t show signs of empathy, but you should really bring your real intentions into line with your urges.

Sometimes, we feel like the people cannot be held accountable for their wrongdoings and we decide to the backbreaking work on their behalf.

This doesn’t justify, why you neglect yourself!

“Needing” is a recipe for disaster because it can cause a lot of trouble. It’s completely wrong to base your happiness on things or other people. If the needs of others represent the axis around which your life spins, you are dealing with severe emotional insecurity.

Every now and then, people also have this habitual tendency to play tricks in order to conceal their dependency.

Why would a person do such a thing? Aren’t we capable of judging our capability without necessarily attaching a negative stigma to it?

Here are a couple of ground rules that may help:

  1. Execute all the tasks starting from early childhood. Cultivate that habit and try to get into the right frame of mind.
  2. Protect that frightened and insecure child dwelling deep within us.
  3. Find real happiness from within, stop making excuses.
  4. Find out what needs to be done in order to detach from these habitual tendencies. Learn how to lean on yourself, and you’ll see a significant change right away.
  5. Call upon God – it is a source that cares for you!
  6. Leave no stone unturned in your effort to gain independence. Dissect the exact ways that will help you reach it!

Self-care and its effects

Self-care does correlate with the attitude you have about yourself and the one you promote as a member of a certain community. Moreover, it signifies our utmost sincerity in handling relationships and how we cope with the pressure of dealing with the issues that may crop up.

As long so you don’t pry into other people’s lives, and they do the same to you, you’ll be fine. If you put your interest upfront, you don’t have to feel ashamed, because there is nothing wrong with being a little selfish.

Due to the fact that codependents rarely take their well-being into account, they suffer! By no means should you feel selfish in doing so!

Yes, you have to acknowledge the fact that you have the right to be a first-class citizen – in your mind. You don’t deserve to treat yourself and to be treated in that fashion.

The question is – how to attain a peaceful state? A person needs to go through the five-step process listed below:

  1. Denial
  2. Anger
  3. Barging
  4. Depression
  5. Acceptance

A deep mental impasse also comes about when people believe that being angry is a sin. Let us lay a couple of things that codependents are convinced of:

  • It’s unacceptable to look or feel angry
  • Anger is a total waste of time and energy
  • Moral people never experience anger
  • Never should you allow yourself to get upset under any circumstances
  • Losing control due to anger is equally bad
  • People run away from angry folks
  • Other people must always feel accepted in your presence  

Don’t get surprised if from time to time, you may lose the ground beneath your feet. It’s a symbolic expression that embodies our absolute necessity to vent anger and rage if that’s the appropriate response.

Anyway, one must not take for granted the idea of self-development into a self-reliant individual. When feelings come rush in, handle them with your feet on the ground.

Tackle the codependent traits and laws you live by!

Key Lessons from “Codependent No More”

1.      The effects of codependency
2.      Find your hidden battering ram
3.      Educate yourself

The effects of codependency

If you are unaware of the calamity induced by the lack of independent spirit, then you’re really putting yourself in a secondary-position.

Remaining dependent is being weak, and often people will make take full advantage of that. Stand up for yourself and focus on your well-being.

Find your hidden battering ram

This symbolic expression of how you should act and when is in tune with the idea of becoming more empowered.

It’s the idea that allows you to adopt a selfish approach if it is for a greater good.

Educate yourself and evolve constantly

Don’t merely become one of those people who despise change. In order to thrive a person needs to tackle the codependent spirit and accept full liability for every action.

Be prepared to exploit every means at your disposal in order to grow.

Like this summary? We’d Like to invite you to download our free 12 min app, for more amazing summaries and audiobooks.

“Codependent No More Quotes”

Codependents are reactionaries. They overreact. They under-react. But rarely do they act. They react to the problems, pains, lives, and behaviors of others. They react to their own problems, pains, and behaviors. Click To Tweet We rescue people from their responsibilities. We take care of people’s responsibilities for them. Later we get mad at them for what we’ve done. Then we feel used and sorry for ourselves. That is the pattern, the triangle. Click To Tweet Worrying, obsessing, and controlling are illusions. They are tricks we play on ourselves. Click To Tweet I saw people who were hostile; they had felt so much hurt that hostility was their only defense against being crushed again. Click To Tweet Codependents: don’t trust themselves. don’t trust their feelings. don’t trust their decisions. don’t trust other people. try to trust untrustworthy people. Click To Tweet

Our Critical Review

Well, we hope that you learned something because we sure did.

It prompts us to climb the highest point and have a broad overview of the entire life-structure that we nurture.

It can help us a ton!

www.pdf24.org    Take this summary with you and read anywhere! Download PDF:   

Liars, Leakers, and Liberals PDF Summary

Liars, Leakers, and Liberals PDF SummaryThe Case Against the Anti-Trump Conspiracy

We’ve summarized quite a few Anti-Trump books on our site in the past.

And, as the Romans knew, it’s only fair that we hear the other side of the argument as well.

And, if you know her, you know that not many people are as staunchly pro-Trump as Judge Jeanine Pirro.

In fact, even if you don’t know who Judge Jeanine is, the title of her book is a giveaway:

Liars, Leakers, and Liberals.

Who Should Read “Liars, Leakers, and Liberals”? And Why?

If you are a Republican who’s fed up with the anti-Trump stories related to you by the mainstream media, then Liars, Leakers, and Liberals is the book for you.

However, if you’re like us and you don’t want to live in the filter bubble, this book should be even more interesting to you exactly because you are a liberal who thinks that the liberal consensus on Trump reflects the truth of the matter.

Read it not because you agree with it, but precisely because you don’t; you probably dislike radical things and people, and the Truth is rarely radical.

So, get a new, fresher perspective on the Trump presidency.

If it fails to change your opinions, then you’ll not only know that you’ve been right all the time, but you’ll also have prepared contra-arguments for all the things Republicans and Trumpists will try to throw at you in the future.

If, however, it changes at least some of them, you’ll be richer for a new, more complete perspective on how the world actually rolls.

In other words, it’s a win-win.

About Jeanine Pirro

Jeanine PirroJeanine Pirro – better known as Judge Jeanine – is a former American judge, prosecutor, and Republican politician, best known as a TV personality and bestselling author.

In 1991, Pirro became the first female judge elected to the Westchester County Court; afterward, she became the first female District Attorney of the same county.

During her time as a District Attorney, she gained prominence not only for her involvement in numerous cases of domestic abuse but also for her regular TV appearances commenting on widely publicized events such as the O.J. Simpson murder trial.

In 2006, Pirro briefly sought the Republican nomination in an attempt to run against Hillary Clinton but dropped out of the race to run for Attorney General of New York. She lost the New York Attorney general election to Andrew Cuomo.

Jeanine Pirro hosted the Judge Jeanine Pirro show on the CW between May 2008 and September 2011; since then she hosts Fox News Channel’s Justice with Judge Jeanine.

“Liars, Leakers, and Liberals PDF Summary”

Liars, Leakers, and Liberals delves into the relationship between Donald Trump, the so-called Fake News media and the supposed deep state which actually governs the United States from behind the scene.

As expected, Judge Jeanine’s position is pretty clear: the media, Hollywood, FBI, and so on and so forth – they all lie about Trump so as to protect the interests of the elite and cover up the existence of this deep state.

Or, in her words:

Yes, Donald Trump arrived just in time, when our nation needed him most, when we needed to be protected and inspired. To be sure, Trump was not your typical, politically correct candidate.
Unlike the two-faced parasites in Washington, he really wanted to make America great again. They tagged him with every negative characterization they could. They called him a fascist, a racist, and twisted everything he said. Why? Because he was a threat to the greedy, corrupt Washington insiders who had captured our government.
And he did what other candidates wouldn’t dream of. In addition to the Establishment, he took on the media. They said it was suicide. They were wrong.

Let’s skim through her arguments.

Trump and the Fake News Media

According to Judge Jeanine, media wasn’t always as hostile to Trump as it has been ever since his nomination for Presidency.

In fact, back in the days of The Art of the Deal, The Apprentice, and Miss USA, he was a household name both revered and criticized by the media.

However, only the latter is true for the past few years, and the statistics prove it.

Namely, a Pew Research Center study discovered that only 28 percent of all stories about George W. Bush were negative, only 20 percent of those about Obama could be described in the same manner, and a whopping 62 percent of what the media says about Trump is a critique of him or his politics!

Why?

Because lies about Trump sell; according to Judge Jeanine, this phenomenon even has a name in some circles: the Trump Bump.

So, how does Trump deal with this?

“With just one phrase,” writes Judge Jeanine, “the president has deflected and defeated billions of negative words written about him.”

And you already know the phrase:

Fake News!

Hell, Trump even instituted the Fake News Awards, which, to quote Judge Jeanine, “raised exposure of dishonest media to an art form.”

Although, to be fair to Trump, one of the winners of this award, Brian Ross, has been involved in many controversies of this kind for the past two decades.

To be fair to the Fake News media, though, they have suspended him quite a few times on account of his unsourced reporting.

The Hypocrisy of Hollywood

“Folks,” writes Judge Jeanine, “Hollywood’s been steeped in hypocrisy for decades. As the curtain goes up on the casting couch, the town that glorifies violence, murder, and rape is the same town where the centuries-old practice of pressuring women to trade sex for a job is kept quiet.”

Of course, what Pirro is referring to is the Harvey Weinstein affair.

Weinstein, a liberal Democrat who has given almost a $1,000,000 in donations to Barack Obama, was accused by numerous women of rape, abuse, and sexual assaults in October 2017.

However, it took the Obamas quite some time to react to this story, and Hillary Clinton was nowhere to be found for at least five days.

At the same time, everybody seems to be shouting against Trump for similar accusations, even though not one of them has been documented as well as those brought out against Weinstein.

Now, why is that?

Simply put, because liberals are “fans of Hollywood’s hypocrisy.” For example, writes Judge Jeanine, after Hillary lost the Presidency, Michelle Obama commented that “any woman who voted against Hillary Clinton voted against their own voice.”

“Michelle,” she asks, “does that mean you listened to your voice and voted for Hillary and against your husband when Hillary ran against him in the primary? Where was your voice on the day your daughter got a job with Harvey?”

Moreover, where was Hillary’s or the media’s voice when Bill Clinton was accused of similar charges.

On a side note, don’t listen to the opinions of Hollywood actors about anything, says Judge Jeanine.

They don’t matter one beat since “these are people with a bloated sense of self-worth, little accountability, and practically no original thought. Without a Hollywood scriptwriter, most of them couldn’t talk their way out of a telemarketing call.”

Illegal Immigrants

This, of course, is the burning issue.

Should illegal immigrants be allowed in the United States, and are Trump and the American people for or against immigration?

Back in 2015, when Trump said that illegal immigrants are rapists, bringing drugs and crime to the USA, many liberal media predicted that this statement should spell the end of Trump.

Strangely enough, not only it didn’t, but it brought him the presidency.

Why?

Because most Americans share this opinion.

Moreover, because Trump is not against immigrants – illegal or otherwise – but against sanctuary cities, which don’t cooperate with the government on the subject of immigration:

The president was not talking about shaking down every suspected illegal immigrant household in the United States with jackbooted stormtroopers demanding ‘Papers, please!’
He was talking about finding illegal immigrants who had committed violent crimes including drug crimes. The government is supposed to arrest people suspected of committing those crimes, whether they are here legally or not!

After all, don’t forget that Trump’s wife is “an immigrant who speaks with an accent” and that his Trump Tower employees describe him as a great employer.

We’re talking about two different subjects here, and it’s time that the media acknowledges this!

Key Lessons from “Liars, Leakers, and Liberals”

1.      The Press Is Lying About Trump, and Hollywood Is Full of Hypocrites
2.      The Washington Divide: Trump vs. the Swamp
3.      Donald Trump Has Already Achieved More Than Many Presidents Before Him

The Press Is Lying About Trump, and Hollywood Is Full of Hypocrites

According to a study, two-thirds of the stories about Trump in the media are negative, as opposed to no more than a third in the case of Obama or even George W. Bush.

The reason is simple: lying about Trump sells, getting The Times 132,000 new subscribers in the first month of Trump’s time in office!

Trump countered the lies by instituting the Fake News Awards, and this worked.

“The genius of Donald Trump,” writes Judge Jeanine, “was recognizing that Americans instinctively felt that the press was lying. He was the one who put the laser focus on the press, and their lack of accountability and America came along with him.”

However, the press is not Trump’s only enemy.

Hollywood’s hypocrisy is another.

There are many actors all around us, says Judge Jeanine, but the actual actors are the worst. Their opinions shouldn’t matter at all, because they are capable of doing nothing else but getting a shot right after twenty takes.

Whether it is Robert DeNiro, Sarah Silverman, or Whoopi Goldberg, these are all people who shouldn’t be dealing with politics in the first place.

Not only they because they aren’t qualified to, but also because these are the same people who covered up the story of Harvey Weinstein’s sexual abuse for decades.

The Washington Divide: Trump vs. the Swamp

Everybody’s talking about divisions during the past few years, but nobody is talking about the important one.

In the opinion of Judge Jeanine, it’s not Republicans vs. Democrats in Washington or anywhere else; it’s Trump vs. the Swamp.

Namely, Washington is full of RINOs – i.e., Republicans in Name Only – who instead of getting behind Trump, go against him so as to further their own agenda.

And that agenda is the same as the one Trump opposes: the agenda of liars and hypocrites who want to govern America from behind the scenes.

These people are all politically correct and seem as if personifications of justice and intellect.

However, they are ten times worse than Trump who may be not as polished talker or a thinker, but “feels the way much of America feels” and “says [exactly] what he thinks.”

And “that’s why he was elected our President.”

Donald Trump Has Already Achieved More Than Many Presidents Before Him

And, according to Judge Jeanine, he’s doing a heck of a good job already.

He’s not only a caring family man – Pirro has been a personal friend of his for many years – but he’s also a decent guy who understands the American people, doing everything he can to help them.

In fact, in merely two years, he has created three million jobs, and today there are more available jobs than people unemployed in the US; unsurprisingly, unemployment is at the lowest it has been for seventeen years.

Despite being labeled as “cuts for the rich,” Trump’s tax cuts have helped the ones most in need: a typical American family should save over $2,000 a year because of them.

In addition, Trump has been doing wonders in America’s foreign policy. Working with our allies, Trump has all but neutralized ISIS, doing what Obama should have done but never did.

He has also strengthened America’s ties with its closest ally in the Middle East (Israel) by recognizing Jerusalem as its capital, and normalized USA’s relations to many countries – even starting peace talks with North Korea!

And yet, CNN talks nothing of this, focusing instead on conspiracy theories such as the Mueller investigation which has turned up nothing so far.

Why would they do that if they actually cared about the American people?

Like this summary? We’d like to invite you to download our free 12 min app for more amazing summaries and audiobooks.

“Liars, Leakers, and Liberals Quotes”

The minute Donald Trump announced his presidential run, on a platform that didn’t politely acquiesce to their progressive, globalist agenda, they turned on him like a pack of feral dogs. Click To Tweet Most Americans have no idea that less than two years after his inauguration, Donald Trump has accomplished more than most presidents accomplish in their entire presidencies. Click To Tweet Just eighteen months into his presidency, Trump accomplished what Obama couldn’t do in two terms: provided concrete proof that African-Americans are legitimately better off under the Trump presidency. Click To Tweet Since losing the election in the worst upset in American electoral history, Hillary Clinton has given over fifty paid speeches blaming just about everyone she can think of for the loss except, of course, herself. Click To Tweet Obama and the Clintons sold our uranium and with it the security of our nation. Click To Tweet

Our Critical Review

Even if you didn’t know before that Judge Jeanine has written quite a few books, Liars, Leakers, and Liberals might just be a title that sounds familiar to you.

The reason?

Pirro’s heated debate with Whoopi Goldberg on The View, after which the sales of Liars, Leakers, and Liberals skyrocketed, pushing the book to the top of The New York Times bestseller list.

Does it deserve to be there?

Well, not exactly.

It is biased and full of conspiracy theories that are, to say the least, unfalsifiable. And that, as Karl Popper has taught us, may just be a sign that they bear no relation to reality.

Moreover, if you label everything everyone says against you Fake News than you’re not actually interested in a fair fight, aren’t you?

Even so, Liars, Leakers, and Liberals does have a few fair points and some truths you won’t be able to hear in the mainstream media.

So, give it a chance: you’ll lose nothing but parts of your filter bubble.

 

www.pdf24.org    Take this summary with you and read anywhere! Download PDF:   

The Highly Sensitive Person PDF Summary

The Highly Sensitive Person PDF SummaryHow to Thrive When the World Overwhelms You

The hypersensitive fraction of the population frequently feels like the world is crashing down on their shoulders.

They don’t want to succumb to this pressure, but they can’t seem to operate under the strain of societal principles.

It’s a struggle they like to win, and Elaine is willing to lay out some actionable tips.

Who Should Read “The Highly Sensitive Person”? And Why?

Well, you got it all wrong if you think highly of yourself and feel like being a lumberjack excludes you from absorbing the utility of this book.

Perhaps, we should put it in layman’s terms!

In our humble opinion, “The Highly Sensitive Person” is an astonishing book that lifts the veils on the behavior of a certain group of people.

Therefore, we believe it will mostly fit those who struggle to maintain composure due to hypersensitivity.

Elaine N. AronAbout Elaine N. Aron

Elaine N. Aron is a psychologist born on November 1st, 1944 in the US. She earned her M.A. in clinical psychology from York University.

Elaine is also lauded as an author whose books have sold millions of copies.

“The Highly Sensitive Person PDF Summary”

Do you fall in the highly sensitive category?

When highly sensitive people (HSPs) share some intimate details about love and relationship-building as a whole – that somehow foreshadows acceptance. In general, they care for their partners dearly and feel no hesitation to convey their feelings and sometimes even plunge into soul-shaking encounters.

All being said, no one marginalizes the non-HSPs, as we are just indicating that HSPs, are more prone to certain behavioral patterns.

In a study conducted by a renowned psychologist, John Gottman, you can find some astonishing numbers regarding the conflicts couples have and end up unresolved. He found out that approximately 70% of all quarrels are unsolvable, and the same percentage applies to both happy and unhappy couples.

This explains why you should at least give the benefit of the doubt prior to jumping into conclusions.

High sensitivity is, in fact, an inherent feature and depicts profound proclivity for making certain moves. HSPs unlike its counterparts, exert themselves in nurturing a close and intimate connection with people from their closest circle.

As avid dreamers, their understanding of the unconscious eclipses the stigma attached to socially-accepted patterns. This gives new impetus for comprehending unconscious impulses that may emerge.

When it comes to cultural patterns, not every culture favors HSPs. As a matter of fact, the more aggressive one social group is, the more it’ll need an entirely different approach toward survival.

We now have four types of people:

  • HSPs/non-HSSs
  • HSSs/non-HSPs
  • Non-HSPs/non-HSSs
  • HSPs/HSSs

The Path to Your Real Self

In this chapter, the author puts emphasis on love and the way you can protect it through right actions. If you want to ensure that you can make headway in this process, you have to get a bird’s eye view of gender stereotypes.

Next up, one must dive deep into the close relationship men and women form, and find the subtle reasons which might hamper the profundity.

Let’s look it through the lens of history.

Throughout the ages, women were somehow pressured to look physically appealing to men as a way of forming a family. In recent years, women were also told to act with respect and adopt ethical habits in the pursuit of achieving their personal and professional goals.

Nonetheless, being attractive remains their personal priority.

In the digital age, HSPs can prosper in almost every regard since gender roles are brought to its minimum. In other words, you are allowed to excel at anything without being subjected to societal pressure.

Also, we would like to address a phenomenon known as “love-shyness.”

Love-shyness is a term conceived by sociologist Brian Gilmartin, who has found out that a significant fraction of heterosexual men crave for establishing intimate relationships but fail to do so.

The truth is, the biggest threat to HSMs (Highly Sensitive Men) are not non-HSMs but the lack of male role models – fathers.  

In order to reciprocate for these cons, HSPs often turn over to a full-scale alteration by developing into a Superman or Superwoman.

The Real Fear of Intimacy

Indeed, HSPs are naturally inclined to have this sense of discomfort when it comes to intimacy. This also induces a risk-free attitude or advocates for absorbing acts that contain minimum insecurities.

Intimacy and friendship often demand more openness and thus it is vital to lower your guard down. Sometimes, it may well end up in a fizzle – such as loss, cheating, betrayal, quarrel, etc.

Elaine N. Aron tries to enlighten its readers by laying all the cards on the table from where we can scrutinize all aspects of establishing close and intimate relationships.

It’s not easy to define intimacy but according to the book; it is something like:

Being authentic, revealing to another your most private and true-at-this-moment self— thoughts, feelings, bodily self. In return, the other reveals his or her true self to you.

Why do we have this need for closeness? It’s partly because we were born someone took care of us. It’s not like we did it all on our own – that’s why we have this need for love and confidentiality.

Even as adults we prefer of having someone close by our side to whom we can say anything and expect comforting words.

Eight reasons an HSP might fear intimacy

  • First, Fear of Exposure and Rejection
  • Second, Fear of Angry Attacks
  • Third, Fear of Abandonment
  • Fourth, Fear of Loss of Control
  • Fifth, Fear of One’s “Attack-and-Destroy” Impulses
  • Sixth, Fear of Being Engulfed
  • Seventh, Fear of Commitment
  • Eighth, Fear of Disliking the Other for Subtle Annoyances

Fall in Love

Contrary to popular beliefs, HSPs struggle to fall in love! In the next sub-chapter, the author defines love as:

Love is a set of attitudes, feelings, and behaviors associated with the desire to enter and maintain an intimate relationship with a particular other person.

If you want to meet HSPs and see their side of the story, you ought to follow these simple ground rules:

  • Go where they go, do what they do
  • Learn to recognize them
  • Ask others to introduce you to the HSPs they know
  • Approach HSPs carefully and be persistent

While, if you are more interested in non-HSPs you should meet the following criteria:

  • Go where they go, but on your own terms
  • When you are feeling aroused or nervous, ask questions and listen
  • Let the non-HSP get to know you, especially your deeper aspects
  • Be ready for the differences between you

Sometimes, we don’t even want to engage in serious relationships, and there are some things you can do to avoid falling in love. Try not to express intimacy, avoid giving romantic cues, stay away from people who are clearly interested in that kind of relationships, etc.

The Synergy between HSPs and non-HSPs

Mismatches existing in behavior and temperament can sometimes be compensated with a great dose of flexibility. At a given point, the greatest problem among these two groups would be the idea of maintaining close intimacy.

One cannot simply contend with one outcome or the other – we must advocate for a critical overview of the pros and cons.

So how can a person benefit from the differences:

  • You will have immense flexibility intertwined by a wide range of abilities
  • Your relationship will be filled with exciting situations
  • It will help both of you to build a character
  • You will affect each other
  • You will learn more about your “shadow”

Furthermore, Elaine pinpoints in her research that many HSPs prefer or are in close relationships with partners who can be portrayed as non-HSPs. Nonetheless, the main misunderstanding occurs when these individuals are believed to be insensitive.

The truth is – they are only less sensitive than the HSPs.

When the relationship is composed of two HSPs, then the probability of negative emotions reaching an overwhelming level is a bit higher.

So basically, one must not take for granted any potential outcome.

Key Lessons from “The Highly Sensitive Person”

1.      Get out of your comfort zone
2.      There is nothing wrong in being a highly sensitive person
3.      Understand your standings

Get out of your comfort zone

This lesson doesn’t solely reflect the position of HSPs, as we try to portray all people as individuals whose “prison” is self-induced.

Try to act in your best interest by confronting your restricted mindset and discover new heights.

There is nothing wrong in being a highly sensitive person

People in this position are depicted as underdogs and feel like being pushed around by a more secure fraction of their group.

This doesn’t have to be the case if you are aware of these inclinations and tendencies.

Understand your standings

Well, this seems a bit vague! What does it mean to understand your status? It simply implies that you must discern traits which may hamper your soar on any level.

Beware of external obstacles which could pose a potential threat. Your only job is to take necessary precautions.

Like this summary? We’d Like to invite you to download our free 12 min app, for more amazing summaries and audiobooks.

“The Highly Sensitive Person Quotes”

HSPs make such good targets because we react so strongly. Click To Tweet Even a moderate and familiar stimulation, like a day at work, can cause an HSP to need quiet by evening. Click To Tweet Whatever the times, suffering eventually touches every life. How we live with it and help others too, is one of the great creative and ethical opportunities. Click To Tweet Things deeply move me. I’d hate to miss the intense joy of that. Click To Tweet Everything alive is important; there’s something greater, I know. Click To Tweet

Our Critical Review

You probably have realized by now, but we are not clinical psychologists, and we have to take Elaine’s word for everything said in here.

It is of immense value that the theory about the harmful effects of hypersensitivity is debunked and every outcome has its good and bad sides.

www.pdf24.org    Take this summary with you and read anywhere! Download PDF:   

What to Say When You Talk to Yourself PDF Summary

What to Say When You Talk to Yourself PDF SummaryWell, this is not a problem Shad is addressing but an everyday reality.

Either consciously or unconsciously we all indulge in self-chat and puzzle over a wide variety of things in our moments of wasted time.

This book tries to ascertain the real prowess of this phenomenon and how we can capitalize on it.

Let’s roll!

Who Should Read “What to Say When You Talk to Yourself”? And Why?

If you prefer to play on the safe side, you are probably inclined to agree that a daily dose of motivation is all it takes to come out victorious. But, why then so few people manage to break the ice?

Only those whose lives are perfectly aligned with their inner needs can be exempted from reading this amazing masterpiece.

To put it differently, we believe that flipping through the pages of “What to Say When You Talk to Yourself” would be beneficial.

Shad HelmstetterAbout Shad Helmstetter

Shad Helmstetter is a renowned author and a self-development figure whose methods are unconventional.

A life-coach, who explains the mind-programming in need of a complete overhaul.

He is also the author of The Selftalk Solution; Who Are You Really, and What Do You Want?; Selftalk for Weightloss; Network of Champions.

“What to Say When You Talk to Yourself PDF Summary”

Chapters 1-5 — Setting Up a Plan

Frequently, we have been told that we can achieve anything we crave for if we put up the necessary effort. Nonetheless, in practicality, the people sharing these tips don’t have the credibility since no one has rolled out the red carpet before them.

In all honesty, they love the glamour and limelight as much as the next person. Why then we fail in reaching our goals, or making things work the way we want it to be?

The everyday life which takes most of our energy and engrossed us entirely is the biggest bottleneck one can come across against.

The answer to this struggle is almost always right underneath your nose, but we tend to overshoot the destination. After being engaged in constant learning, you’ll find out the unvarnished truth regarding the process of exceeding your expectations.

Shad talks about his path to becoming a real goal-setter and achiever.  

Are you ready for the bitter truth?

Top-notch behavioral analyzers and researchers have uncovered that the lion’s share (70%) of the inner phenomena is comprised of negative sensations. To spice things up, it’s also brought to light by doctors alike that most of the illnesses are self-induced.

Wow, that’s a revelation!

Since the old programming of the mind is the “engine” which controls and cultivates the habits, you should zoom in on the practices you apply to your life.

The author ponders about the probability of maintaining high-intensity which could lead to full reformation, inwardly. So why then, we fail to establish good habits, even though we’ve read dozens of self-help books and exerted ourselves in following those ground rules?

A general rule of thumb is that self-improvement is an endless process, not an overnight sensation.

It stands to reason why most people just go back to their previous lifestyle and abandon the idea of alteration.

To make up for this loss, Shad pinpoints three key elements omitted from self-development literature:

  • Permanence
  • Knowledge of the brain functions
  • The idea of developing a specific programming vocabulary

Chapters 6-10 – Self Management

Can we find a single soul on this planet who doesn’t indulge in self-talk? Well, that’s on the same wavelength as saying – let’s find a person who doesn’t need oxygen. The emotional expression can either be put into words, pictures, thoughts and we all one way or the other rely upon the mind to make decisions.

So, the answer to that question is – No!

With that being said – a thought doesn’t have any real power until you pour belief into it. In other words, ideas and concepts mean nothing without the person to inflict judgment and ruminate on something.

Years and years of researching and exploring have led the author into noticing that most of the self-talk falls into the unconscious realm. It means that people do it out of habit, and are not keenly aware of the sensations that emerge.

If you go back a little bit and reminisce about the dreams that you once had and the craftiness you possessed but didn’t follow that intuition – you’ll find out that most of the self-talk is negative.

You could have turned them into a real-life experience, but something insurmountable cropped up!

THE FIVE STEPS THAT CONTROL OUR SUCCESS OR FAILURE

  • Behavior
  • Feelings
  • Attitudes
  • Beliefs
  • Programming

How can we define Self-Talk?

Self-Talk is a way to override our past negative programming by erasing or replacing it with conscious, positive new directions.

The Five Levels of Self-Talk

  • The Level of Negative Acceptance
  • The Level of Recognition and Need to Change
  • The Level of Decision to Change
  • The Level of The Better You
  • The Level of Universal Affirmation

In the last chapter, the author focuses on the pros and cons of the positive-thinking rhetoric. As a rarely criticized concept, the author is curious regarding its practical nature.

Is it just a good theory, or is it applicable in day-to-day encounters?

Shad cast doubt on the idea of developing a mindset which can subdue the urge to produce negative thoughts – forever. For precise the same reason, leaning on the notion of developing into a positive-thinker is short-lived.

The human mind wants ACTIONS, WORDS, COMMANDS, not some commercialized belief-system that a large chunk of the population nurtures.

Chapters 11-15 – New Attitude

Shad starts by attempting to unpuzzle the myth of motivation. He makes it crystal clear that there are different kinds of motivations and motivators most of whom have an audience of anxious listeners whose life has turned upside down, and he/she is ready to wave its wand and make all the sorrow disappear.

It’s all done energetically so that once a person leaves that collective magnetism would feel psyched up to beat the odds! Even companies endorse the same attitude when trying to motivate their colleagues and conclude businesses.

EXTERNAL MOTIVATION IS TEMPORARY!

If you don’t want to be led astray and want to avoid veering off course, then you have to understand that you need an internal shift.

Corporate executives and managers should heed these warning indicators. If at some point, you felt like your motivational speech didn’t have the effect you were hoping for, you should understand that external motivation is not linked to permanency.

Many people confuse this part with hypnosis. Although they pretty much share the same features, hypnosis helps you enter a “trance” state, while Self-Talk guides you through the process of achieving your goals, consciously.

When it comes to practical use, you should know that an overly complex system that requires much time, energy will never be put into use!

Advocate for simplicity, and you’ll immediately see the positive change. Also, it is critical to understand the possibilities regarding self-talk:

  • SILENT SELF-TALK – The concealed chatter
  • SELF-SPEAK – Anything you say out loud
  • SELF-CONVERSATION – Anything you say out loud while holding both ends of the conversation
  • SELF-WRITE – This one is self-explanatory
  • TAPE-TALK – Listen to your thoughts on a recording device

Chapters 16-20 – Lean towards Problem-Solving

Self-Talk can be further subdivided into four categories:

  • Habit-Changing
  • Attitude-Building
  • Motivational
  • Situational Self-Talk

State your goal in the present tense and remain persistent! The subconscious mind is not sure whether your statement is true or false, therefore, you should always insist on telling it to act upon that energy.

I always do everything I need to do when I need to do it. I never argue or let my emotions work against me. I don’t smoke! I have a good memory.

I easily and automatically remember any name or anything that is important to me. I eat only what I should.

I am a good listener-I hear everything that is I am attentive, interested, and aware of everything that is going on around me.

Try to get as specific as possible, and that will help you change your attitude. Your attitude will determine the outcome; it’s that simple. You should also bear in mind that attitude has a critical role in the portrayal of yourself!

As we progress throughout this book, you also start to get the big picture and act upon given instructions. This is the essence of problem solving and accomplishment.

Also, don’t misuse the term “goal” and try to be as consistent as possible. Once your projections are in tune with the reality, it will be easier to conquer the world.

Chapters 21-23 – Self-talk and Its Effects

The last three chapters revolve around the idea of spearheading a campaign that will enable you to create your own self-talk.

Emphasize honesty and try not to embellish your daily encounters. Keep it real and loud by knowing your current standings.

Example: Today has been a tough day.

We also advise you to run through the Self-Talk checklist to see whether you are moving in the right direction:

  • Is your self-talk stated in the present tense?
  • Is it specific?
  • Does it get the job done without creating any unwanted side effects?
  • Is it easy to use?
  • Is it practical?
  • Is it personal and is it honest?
  • Does your self-talk ask enough of you?

The author highlights the following statement:

You are everything there is,
Your thoughts, your life, your dreams come true.
You are everything you choose to be.
You are unlimited as the endless universe.

Key Lessons from “What to Say When You Talk to Yourself”

1.      The truth behind “I can do it” mentality
2.      Find out what really works
3.      Educate yourself and dive deep into your unconscious tendencies

The truth behind “I can do it” mentality

Ask yourself, can a 75 year-old-man from Texas beat Usain Bolt in 100-meters race? Don’t care who your motivational speaker is, the truth is that not everything is possible.

Genetics, culture, environment, financial and physical capabilities – all of these can affect the outcome.

Make smart moves, and you can end up exceeding your expectations.

But believing that a 45-year-old dude who has never been a basketball player, can defeat Lebron James in one-on-one game is crazy.  

Find out what really works

Shad merely implies that an internal shift is 100x more powerful than millions of external motivational boosts.

They wield no real power, and you should not lean on them for overcoming temporary setbacks.

Educate yourself and dive deep into your unconscious tendencies

Read, ponder, and puzzle over concepts engrained deep inside you.

Don’t allow your shallowness to stand in the way of full victory in terms of achieving your goals.

That is the essence of prosperity.

Like this summary? We’d Like to invite you to download our free 12 min app, for more amazing summaries and audiobooks.

“What to Say When You Talk to Yourself Quotes”

The brain simply believes what you tell it most. And what you tell it about you, it will create. It has no choice. Click To Tweet A lot of people have lived richer lives because someone who cared took the time to listen. Click To Tweet Give life to your dreams, give strength to your visions, and give light to your path. Click To Tweet You will become what you think about most; your success or failure in anything, large or small, will depend on your programming—what you accept from others, and what you say when you talk to yourself. Click To Tweet The more you think about yourself in a certain way, the more you will think about yourself in that same certain way! Click To Tweet

Our Critical Review

Well, it is good to something that questions the concepts which are overly commercialized – such as a positive mindset.

It’s of enormous importance to have someone who fears not in letting the cat out of the bag!

Shad Helmstetter gives us the lowdown on how self-talk affects our decision-making, and how we can make use of it!

www.pdf24.org    Take this summary with you and read anywhere! Download PDF:   

The Varieties of Religious Experience PDF Summary

The Varieties of Religious Experience PDF SummaryA Study in Human Nature

Science and religion haven’t been exactly on speaking terms for most of history.

America’s great philosopher and first psychology teacher William James attempted to mend that.

And he did it best in one of the earliest books exploring the psychological nature of religion:

The Varieties of Religious Experience.

Who Should Read “The Varieties of Religious Experience”? And Why?

Regardless of whether you’re a religious person or not, one thing that should be more than clear to you is the fact that religious experiences exist.

It helps nobody if we shelf all of them under the same category – say, meetings with the divine or acts of manipulations.

That’s why James’ Verities of Religious Experiences is such an essential work in the history of science. The American philosopher is almost utterly disinterested in the legitimacy of religious experiences.

What he is interested in, however, is much more important: whether religious experiences can tell us more about the human condition here, on earth.

That’s why we warmly recommend this book to both believers and non-believers: it takes into account both positions, and it analyzes religious experiences in an objective, descriptive manner.

About William James

William JamesWilliam James was one of the most influential American philosophers and psychologists, justly considered “The Originator of Pragmatism” (with Charles Saunders Pierce) and “The Father of American Psychology.”

Born into a wealthy intellectual family – his brother was the novelist Henry James – William James trained as a physician and even taught anatomy at Harvard; however, he was never interested in practicing medicine, and he quickly reoriented toward the field of psychology and then philosophy.

James’ writings have influenced a number of prominent 20th-century intellectuals, from Husserl and Du Bois to Russell and Wittgenstein.

His books, Essays in Radical Empiricism, The Principles of Psychology, and the Varieties of Religious Experience, are considered not only groundbreaking texts in each of their respective fields but also indelible parts of the Western Canon.

“The Varieties of Religious Experience PDF Summary”

The Varieties of Religious Experience consists of William James’ Gifford Lectures on natural theology, which he delivered at the University of Edinburgh during the first three years of the 20th century.

There were originally twenty of them, but the book has a few chapters less than that number since it groups those which explored similar topics.

Lecture I. Religion and Neurology

“Religion and Neurology” describes the methodology of James’ study.

Just so that no one should make a mistake, he states straight from the outset:

I am neither a theologian, nor a scholar learned in the history of religions, nor an anthropologist. Psychology is the only branch of learning in which I am particularly versed. To the psychologist the religious propensities of man must be at least as interesting as any other of the facts pertaining to his mental constitution. It would seem, therefore, as a psychologist, the natural thing for me would be to invite you to a descriptive survey of those religious propensities.

And then he proceeds to explain that it seems much more interesting to him to explore the world of the “religious geniuses,” i.e., those people who have experienced religious visions dissimilar to those passed on through orthodox traditions.

In other words, the Einsteins of religious experiences.

Lecture II. Circumscription of the Topic

“Circumscription” is a rather archaic word which means “restriction” or “limit.”

And that’s what James tries to set in the second lecture.

Mostly, he says, he is interested in personal religious experiences, since corporate ones are usually – if not always – the product of personal ideas and conversions.

Put simply, Christianity exists because of Jesus, Islam because of Muhammed; so, the only religious experiences worth analyzing are those of Jesus and Muhammed.

And even more interesting than Jesus and Muhammed may be the creators of sects within these religions – say, George Fox who founded the Quaker religion.

What drove them to do it?

Lecture III. The Reality of the Unseen

“Vague impressions of something indefinable have no place in the rationalistic system,” writes William James in this chapter.

“Nevertheless,” he immediately adds giving an apology for his interest in religious experiences, “if we look on man’s whole mental life as it exists, on the life of men that lies in them apart from their learning and science, and that they inwardly and privately follow, we have to confess that the part of it of which rationalism can give an account is relatively superficial.”

It is the part that has the prestige undoubtedly, for it has the loquacity, it can challenge you for proofs, and chop logic, and put you down with words… Your whole subconscious life, your impulses, your faiths, your needs, your divinations, have prepared the premises, of which your consciousness now feels the weight of the result; and something in you absolutely knows that that result must be truer than any logic-chopping rationalistic talk, however clever, that may contradict it.

Lectures IV and V. The Religion of Healthy-Mindedness

The fourth and fifth James’ Gifford lecture are grouped under the same title: “The Religion of Healthy-Mindedness.”

Interestingly enough, in retrospect, what James is talking about in this chapter – terming it America’s principal contribution to religion – is actually what we should nowadays call it positive thinking.

Finding its origins in Emerson, Whitman and Mary Baker Eddy’s Christian Science, James calls this “the religion of healthy-mindedness,” or “the religion of the mind-cure.”

In the case of these people, James thinks, the religious experience is the product of happiness and an optimistic outlook; they don’t believe in evil and bad things since both of them can be neutralized through a positive attitude.

These are the once-born, the people who can live a life of sustained happiness; they don’t need a religion different than optimism.

Lectures VI and VII. The Sick Soul

However, there’s also another group, a group of people whose souls are sick from birth, since, unlike the once-born, they believe that the world is fundamentally evil.

These are the morbid-minded people.

Unfortunately, in the eyes of James, “morbid-mindedness ranges over the wider scale of experience,” since many people suffer on a daily basis and the healthy-minded are all but incapable for prolonged suffering.

So that these morbid-minded people can experience happiness, they need to be born a second time; this is why James calls their religious experiences, the religious experiences of the twice-born.

To these people, finding religion means finally finding a cure for unhappiness.

Lecture VIII. The Divided Self, and the Process of Its Unification

So, in a way, religion is a way for the morbid-minded individual to restore the condition of his healthy-mindedness.

This can be done through some sort of a “conversion experience” – see below – which can happen either abruptly (as in the case of St Paul) or through a gradual process of discovery (as in the case of Leo Tolstoy and John Bunyan).

“But neither Bunyan nor Tolstoy,” notes James beautifully, “could become what we have called healthy-minded. They had drunk too deeply of the cup of bitterness ever to forget its taste, and their redemption is into a universe two stories deep.”

In both of them, “the sadness was preserved as a minor ingredient in the heart of the faith by which it was overcome.”

However, what interests James “is that as a matter of fact they could and did find something welling up in the inner reaches of their consciousness, by which such extreme sadness could be overcome.”

Lecture IX and X. Conversion

In lectures nine and ten, James spends some time discussing the nature and the effects of religious conversion.

For some reason, he says, religion gives people the power and the impetus to change their habits and even their character.

In some cases, religious conversions result in a profound change affecting the core being of an individual.

“There are persons in whom,” writes James, “quite independently of any exhaustion in the Subject’s capacity for feeling, or even in the absence of any acute previous feeling, the higher condition, having reached the due degree of energy, bursts through all barriers and sweeps in like a sudden flood.”

He notes that “these are the most striking and memorable cases, the cases of instantaneous conversion to which the conception of divine grace has been most peculiarly attached.”

Lectures XI to XV. Saintliness and the Value of Saintliness

Then James moves on to the topic of saintliness which he explores in the next five chapters.

He uses the first two to define saintly people as those whose “spiritual emotions are the habitual center of the personal energy.”

According to James, saintliness includes four traits which lead to four practical consequences.

The four traits of saintliness are these:

#1. “A feeling of being in a wider life than that of this world’s selfish little interests; and a conviction … of the existence of an Ideal Power.”
#2. “A sense of the friendly continuity of the ideal power with our own life, and a willing self-surrender to its control.”
#3. “An immense elation and freedom, as the outlines of the confining selfhood melt down.”
#4. “A shifting of the emotional center towards loving and harmonious affections, towards ‘yes, yes’ and away from ‘no,’ where the claims of the non-ego are concerned.”

And the practical consequences of these four traits are the following:

#1. Asceticism: experiencing pleasure in self-sacrifice;
#2. Strength of soul: since fear and anxieties make room for “blissful equanimity,” a saintly person can endure everything and become a martyr. “Come heaven, come hell, it makes no difference now!”
#3. Purity: being sensitive to your own purity means trying willingly to stay away from the impurities of the world, which is often its material nature;
#4. Charity: tenderness for fellow-creatures; “the saint loves his enemies, and treats loathsome beggars as his brothers.”

Lectures XVI And XVII. Mysticism

In the next two lectures – and, in a way, the final two proper lectures of this series – William James explores the concept of mysticism. And he extrapolates “four marks which, when an experience has them, may justify us in calling it mystical”:

#1. Ineffability: no mystical experience can be adequately put into words; it defies expression;
#2. Noetic quality: all mystical experiences are “states of insight into depths of truth unplumbed by the discursive intellect;” even though inarticulate, they give the mind power of a kind which the person who goes through a mystical experience considers it revelatory;
#3. Transiency: most mystical experiences are transient and can’t be sustained for long;
#4. Passivity: the mystic often feels “as if he were grasped and held by a superior power;” he is being overcome by something else.

The first two of these four qualities of the mystical experiences are general: all mystical experiences have them; however, the second two are subsidiary features found often, but not always, in cases such as these.

Lecture XVIII. Philosophy

In this lecture, William James tries to explain why it is so difficult to talk about religious experiences in philosophical language.

Of course, the answer is simple: the former is illogical, and the latter follows the laws of logic by definition.

However, there’s a catch!

“I do believe,” writes James, “that feeling is the deeper source of religion, and that philosophic and theological formulas are secondary products, like translations of a text into another tongue.”

This whole lecture is an explanation of that sentence.

Lecture XIX. Other Characteristics

In the penultimate lecture, James skims through some “other characteristics” of the religious experiences.

The three topics covered here are institutional religion, prayers, and the relationship between religion and the subconscious.

James doesn’t hold organized religion in high regard since it doesn’t give enough room for personal religious experiences – which is what it was born out of.

Prayers are then analyzed both historically and pragmatically, as is the relationship between religion and the subconscious, leaving room for the interpretation of at least some religious experiences as products of psychopathological conditions.

Lecture XX. Conclusions

In his final lecture, William James continues this discussion of the subconscious, presenting it as a channel through which “the further limits of our being plunge… into an altogether other dimension of existence from the sensible and merely ‘understandable’ world.”

It is because of this that further studies in the realm of the subconscious are necessary.

They, in the eyes of James, should be able to reveal to us a sounder basis for scientific exploration of the religious experience.

For now, it is our duty to not dismiss it as something inherently unscientific because it has helped many people become both happier and smarter.

Key Lessons from “The Varieties of Religious Experience”

1.      Healthy-Mindedness and Morbid-Mindedness
2.      Saintliness: Traits and Effects
3.      The Four Marks of a Mystical Experience

Healthy-Mindedness and Morbid-Mindedness

Some people are born healthy-minded, and others are born morbid-minded; the former are capable of sustaining happiness, the latter think that they are doomed to suffer through life.

Positive thinking is, more or less, the only religion the first group of people needs; however, the second can only become healthy-minded trough some sort of religious conversion.

That’s why William James calls the former “the once-born” and the latter “the twice-born.”

Saintliness: Traits and Effects

There are four traits which describe a saintly person and which lead to four different practical effects.

The traits in question are: a feeling that the world is more than what we can see; a sense that there is an Ideal Power which exists in you as well; an immense elation and freedom; and a shifting from a no-state to a yes-state of being.

These four traits lead to four practical consequences: asceticism, strength of soul, purity, and charity.

The Four Marks of a Mystical Experience

Just like saintliness, mysticism can also be defined within the limits of four qualities.

These are: ineffability, noetic quality, transiency, and passivity.

The first two are general and describe all mystical experiences; the latter two can often be found in them, but are sometimes absent and are subsidiary.

Like this summary? We’d like to invite you to download our free 12 min app for more amazing summaries and audiobooks.

“The Varieties of Religious Experience Quotes”

Good-humor is a philosophic state of mind; it seems to say to Nature that we take her no more seriously than she takes us. I maintain that one should always talk of philosophy with a smile. Click To Tweet Knowledge about life is one thing; effective occupation of a place in life, with its dynamic currents passing through your being, is another. Click To Tweet I am no lover of disorder and doubt as such. Rather I fear to lose truth by the pretension to possess it already wholly. Click To Tweet There are two lives, the natural and the spiritual, and we must lose the one before we can participate in the other. Click To Tweet The lunatic's visions of horror are all drawn from the material of daily fact. Our civilization is founded on the shambles, and every individual existence goes out in a lonely spasm of helpless agony. Click To Tweet

Our Critical Review

The Varieties of Religious Experience may be a bit outdated, and some of its ideas may seem somewhat dangerous; after all, Mussolini said that it was this book which taught him that “an action should be judged by its result rather than by its doctrinal basis.”

Even so, it is a book which – as James’ fellow pragmatist Pierce said – penetrates deep into the hearts of people; and it will undoubtedly be debated for many years to come. Just as it has been for over a century now.

www.pdf24.org    Take this summary with you and read anywhere! Download PDF:   

Good and Mad PDF Summary

Good and Mad PDF SummaryThe Revolutionary Power of Women’s Anger

Wondering about the origins of the #MeToo movement?

Well, it’s time to learn something about the history of women’s anger and why that’s the place where girl power sits!

Dear ladies – and gentlemen in the all but forgotten, literal sense of that word – we present you the summary of Rebecca Traister’s Good and Mad!

Who Should Read “Good and Mad”? And Why?

Regardless of some people’s claims, in the intellectual world, it is not exactly debatable whether women have been the second sex for millennia; and whether some kind of bad form of gender inequality still exists.

So, all of you women who want to change that, this is one of the best books on the subject; and all of you men who can’t seem to understand it, please, first read all about its history in Good and Mad.

After all, nothing comes out of nothing.

Why should the #MeToo movement or feminism be any different?

About Rebecca Traister

Rebecca TraisterRebecca Traister is an American writer, mostly interested in the topics of women’s rights and politics; according to American writer Anne Lamott, she may be ”the most brilliant voice on feminism in this country.”

She debuted in 2010 with Big Girls Don’t Cry in which she attempted to understand and analyze the reinvigoration of the women’s movement in the USA due to Hillary Clinton’s 2008 political campaign.

Eight years later, she published All the Single Ladies, a book often described as “a remarkable portrait of contemporary American life and how we got here, through the lens of the unmarried American woman.”

Good and Mad, published just this year, is Traister’s third book; inspired by the #MeToo movement, it follows the cumulation of women’s anger through the past few centuries.

Find out more at http://www.rebeccatraister.com/

“Good and Mad PDF Summary”

The Beginnings of Women’s Anger

Back in 1963, Betty Friedan published The Feminine Mystique and revealed to the world a “problem that has no name.”

Namely, that the majority of women didn’t like – who would have guessed, ha? – to be measured against an archetype of a children-loving and always-smiling housewife whose sole objective was to find a good husband, and maybe shop for groceries and chauffer Boy Scouts.

That can’t be all, wrote Betty Friedan; there must be so much more to life than that.

And that’s basically how women’s anger was born, almost concurrently with the anger against racial injustice and the one against the War in Vietnam.

And this anger marked most of the 1960s and the 1970s, a period during which women successfully campaigned for the legalization of abortion and birth control, as well as for laws which made divorce easier and sexual harassment a form of discrimination against women.

And then the 1980s came, and Ronald Reagan reversed all that.

Suddenly, these women – labeled as “freaks” at the beginning – evolved to become nothing short of demons and witches.

Don’t believe us?

Just think of Glenn Close in Fatal Attraction.

Which is why women’s anger subsided during the 1990s. No woman wanted to be associated with the she-devils of the 1970s. You know the ones who’d burn their bras, shout in your face, and wouldn’t back down.

Instead, anger made place for humor; a great thing, of course, but even greater for the men. After all, it is far easier to deal with someone funny than with someone angry.

You can just ignore the first one; there’s no way you can ignore the second one.

Angry Yet Again

In a word, not much was going on in the world of feminism between the 1970s and today.

There were few sparks here and there – Anita Hill’s accusation against Clarence Thomas for sexual harassment, Hillary Clinton’s 2008 presidential campaign – but these were all just short-lived and ignorable.

And then Clinton’s second presidential campaign came, and, just as the women of America started preparing for a woman president, the shock arrived: Donald Trump won.

And, once again, women’s anger erupted!

On January 21, 2017, just a day after the inauguration of Donald Trump, the Women’s March happened; its goal: to “send a bold message to our new administration on their first day in office, and to the world that women’s rights are human rights.”

And a bold message it did send: more than 4 million people participated in the Women’s March, making it the most massive single-day protest in US history!

Of course, that was only one of the events through which women’s anger found a way out during the past two years.

The other – still going on – was the #MeToo movement, which spread virally soon after sexual abuse allegations were made against Harvey Weinstein.

What the cases of Trump and Weinstein revealed to the women of the world was something they became aware of in the 1970s: no matter how much they try, chances are they will always be the second sex.

Trump, for example, is both a racist and a misogynist, and yet he won a presidential race against a woman. And as the #MeToo movement revealed, no matter how high on the Hollywood success ladder you’ve climbed, powerful men can still use and abuse you.

What does that leave for the rest of the women out there?

The Sexist Nature of Anger

Nothing.

That’s the answer to the question posited in the last sentence of the previous paragraph.

Most women are utterly defenseless against the powerful and unchanging structure of our patriarchal society; unfortunately, only women can understand the full weight of this sentence. But let us try and make it a bit clearer for you.

Think of an angry young man. What do you see in him? A rebel, a fighter for justice. Even though his face is contorted and his mouth wide open, there’s nothing especially repelling there.

Now think of an angry young woman.

Get it?

The very idea of an “angry woman” somehow seems wrong, almost oxymoronic. Angry women are witches and she-devils: they seem disagreeable to all but everybody, including their parents and partners.

Society has always frowned upon them. After all, there’s a reason why the term “hysterical” originates in the Ancient Greek word for “uterus”; men, for some reason, can’t be hysterical; women are not allowed to.

That’s why Donald Trump can call publicly Mexicans “rapists,” women “pigs” and “cows,” and rave against almost everybody and everything and still win the presidency. And that’s why Republicans were able to all but dismiss the allegations of Kamala Harris for Russian interference simply by labeling her “hysterical.”

Even if you can rationalize against it, deep inside you, you still think that women are supposed to be submissive and smiling, agreeable and beautiful; nothing less, and nothing more. Apparently, we all believe that this is in the very genes of women.

And you know why we believe that?

Because it has suited the people in power for millennia; and because it still does.

After all, they are men.

Stifling Women’s Anger

And please note: we’re not saying that men are consciously doing this.

“On some level,” writes Traister, “if not intellectual then animal, there has always been an understanding of the power of women’s anger: that as an oppressed majority in the United States, women have long had within them the potential to rise up in fury, to take over a country in which they’ve never really been offered their fair or representative stake.”

And this is perhaps the reason why women’s anger is so broadly denigrated, and so often represented as ugly, alienating, and irrational. Because, in the opposite case, it is capable of bringing down the current order.

Just think of Jordan Peterson’s (of course, borrowed from Jung, Taoism, and the spheres of mythological thinking) often-quoted dualistic idea that “Order is the white, masculine serpent; Chaos, its black, feminine counterpart.”

Within this frame of reference, you can’t argue with him. However, this frame of reference is masculine. And, of course (as Beauvoir showed us more than half a century ago) the only way you can define womanhood inside it is by relation.

So, if men represent order – and they do: for starters, there are about five times more of them in US politics – then women, by definition, represent chaos. They are the ones who can do something unexpected.

Traister correctly points out:

What becomes clear, when we look to the past with an eye to the future, is that the discouragement of women’s anger – via silencing, erasure, and repression – stems from the correct understanding of those in power that in the fury of women lies the power to change the world.

Remember this.

Because this is the discussion we’re having.

Key Lessons from “Good and Mad”

1.      It’s Not the End of the Struggle for Women’s Rights… It’s Merely the Beginning
2.      Women’s Anger Is Good
3.      I’m Mad as Hell and I’m Not Going to Take This Anymore!

It’s Not the End of the Struggle for Women’s Rights… It’s Merely the Beginning

2017 was a revolutionary year in terms of women’s struggle for their rights.

It was marked by two momentous events: the Women’s March (the largest single-day protest in U.S. history) and the #MeToo movement.

However, as Rebecca Traister shows, in retrospect, what these women are fighting for are, more or less, the same things the women of the 1960s and the 1970s had all but won.

Merely a second of inattention may lead to another repeat of Reagan’s masculine 1980s.

So, it’s not the end of the struggle – it’s merely the beginning

Women’s Anger Is Good

Don’t let anybody fool you: as far as revolutions are concerned, anger is a prerequisite.

After all, it’s not like the American Revolution started because the Founding Fathers waited for the Englishmen to give them freedom and rights.

They tried the good way, and when that failed, anger festered to the point when the spilling of the tea was the only possible outcome.

“I confess that I am now suspicious of nearly every attempt to code anger as unhealthy, no matter how well-meaning or persuasive the source,” writes Traister.

And then she goes on:

What is bad for women, when it comes to anger, are the messages that cause us to bottle it up, let it fester, keep it silent, feel shame, and isolation for ever having felt it or rechannel it in inappropriate directions. What is good for us is opening our mouths and letting it out, permitting ourselves to feel it and say it and think it and act on it and integrate it into our lives, just as we integrate joy and sadness and worry and optimism.

I’m Mad as Hell and I’m Not Going to Take This Anymore!

This is the central message of Good and Mad.

And we will quote the paragraph stating it best in its entirety:

What you are angry about now – injustice – will still exist, even if you yourself are not experiencing it, or are tempted to stop thinking about how you are experience it, and how you contribute to it. Others are still experiencing it, still mad; some of them are mad at you. Don’t forget them; don’t write off their anger. Stay made for them. Stay mad with them. They’re right to be mad, and you’re right to be mad alongside them. Being mad is correct; being mad is American; being mad can be joyful and productive and connective. Don’t ever let them talk you out of being mad again.

Like this summary? We’d like to invite you to download our free 12 min app for more amazing summaries and audiobooks.

“Good and Mad Quotes”

Men literally have no idea how to even legitimately recognize or name our anger—largely because we don’t either. Click To Tweet The Women’s March on January 21, 2017 was the biggest one-day political protest in this country’s history, and it was staged by angry women. Click To Tweet The British feminist Laurie Penny tweeted in July 2017, ‘Most of the interesting women you know are far, far angrier than you’d imagine.’ Click To Tweet I want to convince you that there are types of anger that are not bad. (Via Myisha Cherry) Click To Tweet Women’s anger, publicly and loudly expressed, is all of that: unnatural, chaotic, upsetting to how power is supposed to work. Click To Tweet

Our Critical Review

“Every fifty years since the French Revolution, writes noted journalist and critic Vivian Gornick, “there’s been an uprising on behalf of women’s rights—we’re in the middle of one right now—and each time around a fresh chorus of voices is heard, making the same righteous bid for social and political equality, only with more force and more eloquence than the time before.”

“Among today’s strongest voices is the one that belongs to Rebecca Traister,” she goes on. “Deeply felt and richly researched, her new book, Good and Mad, is one of the best accounts I have read of the cumulative anger women feel, coming up against their centuries-old subordination. Read it!”

Coming from Gornick, that’s as a compelling argument as any to read Good and Mad.

Black and hip-hop feminist scholar Brittney C. Cooper (by the way, the author of Eloquent Rage) adds yet another: “Rebecca Traister has me convinced in this deftly and powerfully argued book that there will be no 21st-century revolution until women once again own the power of their rage.”

“As I read,” Cooper adds, “my blood started pumping, my fist tightened, and my spirit said, ‘hell yeah! We aren’t going down without a fight.’”

And if you are a woman, it’s your duty to not allow this.

At the moment at least, Good and Mad is an essential read.

www.pdf24.org    Take this summary with you and read anywhere! Download PDF: